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Vide the Order of St. Below is the Dudley coat of arms. It is dedicated ft All' Con licenza de' Sup. Giorgio d'Alega, li 20 Dicembre Mark's, and a poet withal. And now a word about the homes of the Dudley, and what is left of them to the present day. The family home in the Vigna Nuova is still to be seen, and is so fully described in the text as to need no description here. It has beautiful grounds and gardens with se- cular ilex and cypress trees, whose shadows certainly fell on Robert Dudley and his children when they walked there.

In I spent a day at Piombino, the married home of Maria Princess of Piombino, Dudley's eldest daughter, and enjoyed a refreshing swim in the clear blue sea of the tiny bay. It was then a very small port, opposite Rio in the Isle of Elba. Prob- ably in the seventeenth century it was a much more important place, and 'enlivened by the palace of the Appiani family. It was here that Cosimo Dudley died in The Castle, which is well situated on high ground between Sarzana and Fivizzano, still existed in a deserted and neglected state.

The large marble coat-of-arms of the Malespini still holds its place over the principal entrance. It looked to me more like an English country house than an Italian feudal stronghold. In a small room in the Castle, once an oratory, there still remained a white marble slab, bordered by a strip of reddish Porto Venere marble with the following insription: This inscription which records the burial place of the young Earl of Pembroke, who died at Dudley's house in Florence, was removed a few years ago from Olivola 2 by the late Earl of Car- narvon, and is now preserved at Highclere Castle.

The other Dudley possessions at Fiesole, of which Don Carlo's son Don Antonio, a cleric, was the last possessor of the name, 1 Until the French Republican invasion at the end of the last century almost all that part of the country was possessed by the Malaspini, as feudal Lords under the Emperor ; and each of the family had his castle or stronghold.

This rambling preface is much more lengthy than I had intended to make it, but I could not resist the desire to lay before the reader everything that appeared to me interesting about Dudley, his family and descendants. The following Memoir will be a mere chronicle of the prin- cipal events in Dudley's life. It has no pretension to being a complete biography, but it is founded on facts, and supported by good evidence.

My hope is that it may give as much plea- sure to the reader as it has given me in the writing of it. In the Appendix, I have reproduced copies in the original language of all the most important manuscripts and documents, which I trust may prove of use to some future historian.

I am not going to enter at length on the moot ques- tion of Dudley's legitimacy, on which point he was very unfairly treated. Proofs were not wanting that Leicester and Lady Douglas had been married in the presence of well-known witnesses, but the marriage was not publicly acknowledged. Various reasons have been assigned for this concealment, some political and others private ; the most probable seems to be the one given by the author of i Leycester's Commonwealth,' 1 i.

The same contemporary author writes, in speaking of Leicester's subsequent marriage to Lady Essex: During his earliest years the boy Dudley lived with his mother, but when he was about five years old she gave him up to his father's charge. This was in , the year in which the unacknowledged wife was driven to profit by the freedom forced upon her, and for pro- tection to marry Sir Edward Stafford of Grafton. Consequently his son Robert was placed at school, or more probably resided in the house and under the care of Sir John Dudley, a kinsman of the Earl of Leices- ter, who lived says Lysons, in his Magna Britannia at Stoke Newington, and not at Newington Butts as stated by others.

Lysons in his mention of Sir John Dudley repeats the tradition of Leicester himself having visited his little son there. Owen, or Evan, Jones, who was subsequently witness for Sir Robert Dudley in the well- known trial of , confirms that statement. In the boy was at a school, or with a private tutor at Offington, near Worthing in Sussex, under the charge of his uncle Ambrose, Earl of Warwick, who had a residence at or near Worthing.

The memory of his having lived there is still preserved at Worth- ing, in the name of Warwick House. In 1 5 88 he was at the University of Oxford. In the same year, , he served at the camp of Tilbury as Colonel under his father the Earl of Leices- ter, who was Generalissimo.

This fact is stated by himself in the Arcano del Mare and in his MS. In , the Earl of Leicester died at Cornbury, when on his way to Kenilworth. The inserting of the fatal word l base ' was probably due to the unbounded influence obtained over Leicester by his third wife Lettice Knollys, the widow of Walter Devereux, Earl of Essex. For if Leicester in his last will had owned his son Robert by Lady Douglas Sheffield, to be his legitimate son, his sub- sequent marriage with Lettice Knollys, Countess of Essex, as an inevitable consequence became null and void, and she would have lost her great position as Leicester's lawful wife and widow.

As to Lady Sheffield's suspicion that some system of slow poisoning was tried upon her, it is curious to observe that Leicester was more than once suspected of having persons, who stood in his way, removed by poison, to name two of them, the husband of Lady Douglas Sheffield, and the husband of Lettice Knollys, Countess of Essex.

Giulio Borgherini, an Italian fol- lower of Leicester's, commonly called Doctor Julio, was supposed to be the provider of the poison. The death of the Earl of Essex on August 21 st is reported by the author of Leicester's Commonwealth page , who adds " and so he died in the way of an extreme flux, caused by an Italian recipe, as all his friends are well assured, the maker whereof was a Chyrurgeon as is believed that then was newly come to my Lord from Italy, 1 a cunning man and sure in operation.

Nor must you marvaile though all 1 Here the author is mistaken, Dr Julio having been one of the witnesses of Lady Sheffield's marriage some years previously. The same consideration as to her position, also accounts for her fierce and successful opposition to Sir Robert Dudley's attempts in to prove the marriage of his father and mother, and in consequence his own legitimacy.

In his uncle Ambrose, Earl of Warwick, died, and Dudley came into possession of Kenil worth, and of the other estates left to him by his father's will. The Queen however refused her con- sent on account of Dudley's youth, and Frances Vava- sour subsequently married Thomas Shirley, of the Fer- rers family. London Officialis prin- cipalis. From a boy he al- ways had a love of the sea, and for its development he shall speak for himself.

He determined at any cost to enter the marine army, on which at that time the reputation and greatness of England depended. He had also a great desire to discover new countries, therefore from the age of 17 he gave himself to the study of navi- gation, and of marine discipline and war.

In fact he wanted to blend naval command together with military emprise by land, in India and other parts to which navigation should take him. Therefore he built and manned ships of war, in which he sought to place the best pilots that were to be found, and in whose great knowledge and experience he trusted implicitly.

But although Queen Elizabeth then reigning in England would not allow such a mere youth to break his maiden lance in an emprise requiring so much knowledge of the world, and in which many veteran Captains had fared so ill, 1 and lost both men and ships, she contented him by allowing him to make a voyage.

Thus it came to pass that in he began this voyage to the West Indies, to discover and open the way to the Empire of Guiana or Walliana sic in America, much renowned in those times as a great and wealthy nation ; which he did with such success, being both General of his men and Admiral of his ships, that he made himself master of the Island of Trinidad, discovered Guiana, 2 fought and captured the galleons of the enemy, returning at the year's end with much useful spoil.

He took the command of the great English fleet in , in the absence of his uncle, the Earl of Nottingham, High Ad- miral. In questo golfo e porto di Cades: In the which and divers other actions and voyages he has learned what he knows of the art of navigation, and the practice of command and ma- rine and military discipline combined. He gave a much more detailed account of his maiden emprise, the voyage to Trinidad, in a letter to the Rev.

In which voyage he and his company tooke and sunke nine Spanish ships whereof one was an armada of tunnes. Written at the request of Mr Richard Hackluyt. Upon this day, my selfe in the " Beare," a ship of tunnes, as Admirall ; and Captaine Munck in the " Beare 's Whelpe, 1 ' Vice-Admirall ; with two small pinnesses, called the " Frisking " and the ff Eare- wig," I passed through the Needles, and within two days after bare in with Plimmouth.

But I was en- forced to returne backe. Vincent, the north and south capes of Spaine. In which space, having many chases, I could meet there may be after occasion to employ him, and therefore our desire is for the good of her Majesty's service that he might be provided of some competent living to reside in these parts.

And because we are given to understand that the benefice of great Allhallows, in Thames Street, is like to be void, being in your Lordship's gift , we do ear- nestly pray your good Lordship, that at our mediation, you will be pleased to bestow the same, if by the decease of the incumbent it shall be void, on this learned and painful minister.

Wherein your Lordship shall not only have due and honorable consideration of his deserts and pains, but give us occasion to think ourselves beholden unto you in granting your goodwill unto him at our motion and entreaty. Leaving these Spanish shores, I directed my course, the 14 th of December, towards the Isles of the Canaries. Here I lingered twelve dayes for two reasons: I tooke two very fine caravels under the calmes of Tenerif and Palma, which both refreshed and amended my company, and made me a fleet of 3 sailes.

Thus cheared as a desolate traveller, with the company of my small and newe erected Fleete, I continued my purpose for the West Indies. I now caused my Master Abraham Kendall to shape his course directly for the isle of Trinidad in the West Indies ; which after 22 dayes we descried, and the 1 st of February came to anker under a point thereof, called Curiapan, in a bay which was very full of pelicans, and I called it Pelican' Bay.

These Indians are a fine shaped and a gentle people, all naked and painted red, their commanders wearing crowns of feathers. These people did often resort unto my ship, and brought us hennes, hogs, plantans, potatos, pinos, tobacco, and many other pretie commodities, which they exchanged with us for hatch- ets, knives, hookes, belles and glasse buttons.

The country is fertile, and ful of fruits, strange beasts, and foules, whereof munkeis, babions, and parats were in great abundance. Right against the northernmost part of Trinidad, the maine was called the high land of Paria, the rest a very lowe land.

Morucca I learned to be full of a greene stone called Tacarao, which is good for the stone. Caribes I learned to be man-eaters or canibals, and great enemies to the Islanders of Trinidad. But they went from me, and entred into one of the mouthes of the great river Orenoque. The Fleete I found not, but foule weather enough to scatter many Fleetes ; which companies left inee not, till I came to the yles of Flores and Cuervo: And having spent all my powder, I was constrained to leave her, yet in such distresse without sailes and mastes, and hull so often shot through with my great ordinance betweene winde and water, that being three hundred leagues from land, I dare say, it was impos- sible for her to escape sinking.

Ives in Cornwall, about the latter end of May , scaping most dangerously in a great fogge the rocks of Silly. Perhaps the accompanying illustration may elucidate its complexities. Strumento per trovar T ora del flussl del Mare in di- versi luogJii. Tondo di ottone diametro 1 braccio Fioren- tino. Sulla faccia dove vi e la scaletta: The Earl had been under arrest in his own house for some time, having offended the Queen though it is not precisely known for what reason.

Lotti, the Italian resident at London, opines that he had made some negotiations with the King of Scotland which were displeasing to Her Majesty of England. But this was too slow for the young rebel, who got his friends together, Dudley and Blount among them, and with followers and partizans, marched into London.

The Earl of Essex, Dudley, Blount, and oth- ers were taken prisoners. The Earl was subsequently beheaded, as we know to the Queen's eternal remorse.

Dudley got off easily, being shortly after released. With one of these the young sailor, fresh from his voyages, fell in love, and being a ' heretik ' i. The bride died soon after, in without issue, and in the same year he married Alice second daughter of Sir Thomas Leigh, Knight and Baronet of Stoneleigh, Warwickshire.

From to Dudley was living partly in the country at Kenilworth, and partly in London. Alicia Leigh during that time bore him four daughters: Anne, the third daughter, married the great lawyer, Sir Robert Holbourne, Solicitor general to Charles 1st.

She died about Catherine, the fourth and youngest daughter, married that distinguished Royalist in the time of Charles 1st, Sir Richard Leveson, K. These years of Dudley's married life with Alice Leigh were years full of worries to him. He was under the Queen's displeasure for his share in the Essex affair. It was also the time in which he was fighting at long odds for his honour, his name and nobility.

For this cause he attempted by proceedings at law to prove himself the legitimate son of Robert, Earl of Leicester, and of Douglassia late Lady Sheffield, born Howard, widow of Lord Sheffield.

There seemed some hope of success, and the Ecclesiastical Court which, as the plague was raging in London, was that year held at Lichfield was still sifting his evidence, when on Feb- ruary 10th , Lady Lettice, late Countess of Essex, Leicester's widow, filed a bill in the Star Chamber, through Sir Edward Coke, against Sir Robert Dudley and others for defamation. On October 18th of the same year Lord Henry Sydney of Penshurst, who had married Mary Dudley, Leicester's sister, stopped the proceedings at Lichfield, and brought all the depositions to the Star Chamber.

Here Robert Dudley's efforts could avail nought, although, as we have before said, Lady Sheffield and many witnesses swore to her marriage at Esher. All the documents proving this were sealed up by order of the Council of the Star Chamber ; while the evidence on the side of Lettice Lady Essex's marriage with Leicester was taken alone and unquestioned.

On this partial evidence Lady Sheffield, Doctor Babington, and Sir Thomas Leigh Dudley's father-in-law were all found guilty of conspiracy This one-sided law-suit ended on May 13th , in a verdict against Dudley, his whole evidence being sealed up and put away, and in vain did he try to get the judgment reversed.

The trial evidently created opposite impressions in royal circles, for in James 1st, who ratified the decree of the Star Chamber, promulgated an act " to restrain all persons from marriage, until their former wives and former husbands be dead. Even her re- ligion, for he turned Roman Catholic, and then finding, or feigning to find, that his union with Alice Leigh was adulterous and against the Roman Catholic law of marriage his former wife Frances Vavasour not being dead at the time , he repudiated her.

This at least was Dudley's own excuse for the repudiation of 1 See Appendix, n. The patent of Charles 1st. It is a case of conscience which will be judged differently according as it is looked at from different points of view. No doubt his life with Alice Leigh after his character and rank were abased by the decree of the Star Chamber, was no longer a happy one; for we see from her subsequent behaviour that she was a woman who held greatly to rank and station.

At length in he took that decisive step which led him to the Grand-Ducal Court of Tuscany and exercised a ruling influence on all the rest of his life. Irritated and rendered desperate by this harsh and unjust treatment, he, at the end of , obtained the royal permission to travel in foreign parts for three years, and went, never to return ; moreover he did not go alone.

He was accompanied by a young cousin of great spirit and beauty named Elizabeth South- well, eldest daughter of Sir Robert Southwell of Wood- rising, Norfolk. Through this connection with Lady Shef- field's family the young people were first cousins once removed.

A very interesting relazione report in the Medi- cean Archives contains a graphic account of this part of Dudley's life. It was written on July 26th by an Englishman in Paris, and is addressed to the Father Confessor of the Duchess of Tuscany, who had evidently set his reverence to obtain information about 1 Sir Robert Southwell was one of the most distinguished naval commanders in the year of the Invincible Spanish Armada, The infor- mant is very cautious, he signs himself with illeg- ible hieroglyphics, and says that for the future his signature will be R.

He supplicates that what he writes on English matters shall be communi- cated to no one but the Cavalier Yinta Minister of the Grand-Ducal Court , and he especially hopes that the Earl of Warwick will not know that he has written, for ff he holds him in great honour and is his faithful friend," but he adds, "the less secrets are divulged the more they remain secrets.

But the great influence of Cecil obtained the consent of the King, who was pres- ent when the sentence was given in favor of the Syd- neys, and against this Robert Dudley. In Lyons, where he resides at present, he is much honored, and gives it to be understood that he will return to England no more.

His young relative is constantly seen with him in public, as a kind of protest that there is no guilty concealment between them. That this elope- ment in high life caused a great sensation in England we gather from other documents.

Strict orders were promptly given out, but at present we have heard no news. This gentleman is about 35 years of age, of exquisite stature, with a fair beard, and noble appearance. The fact has created great scandal. But as he found that she had taken this step, not for love, but with the object of entering a monastery and 1 We find from other sources that she dressed as his page.

Here Lotti adds in cypher: He presumed on their position as new converts to obtain the Pope dispensation from the laws of con- sanguinity, without by the way mentioning the little impediment of a wife and four children in England. The dispensation given, they were duly married at Lyons, in spite of his wife Alice, who wrote to express her willingness to turn Roman Catholic and join him, bringing her children with her. All this is told in a letter from Antonio Standen addressed Al molto illustre Sig.

Belisario Vint a Cav. Livorno, and dated Rome, January 27th It speaks also of King James' anger against Dudley for his marriage and assumption of the title of Earl of Warwick. It proves him to have been a spy of Queen Elizabeth's, living at Florence and professing Catholicism. The letter is in the Archivio Mediceo, Filza He had a great wish to live in Florence, and thither he wended his way with Elizabeth as soon as they were married.

He then sets forth his attainments, especially in the matter of ship-building and nautical and mil- itary command. There is a ' minute ' of the Florentine Secretary, to Lotti, Min- ister at London, dated March 17th , asking for information about Dudley, and protesting that the 1 See Appendix, n.

Grand-Duke in protecting him has no intention to offend the English King, etc. Information was also requested from Lyons, and from London by private means. The Medicean archives filza contain several of the relazwm in answer to these enquiries, from some of which we have already quoted. There is also a rough draft of a letter from the Grand-Duke of Tuscany to the Earl of Northampton, March 17th , saying: Besides the information I have received of his merits and valour, I have the more willingly received him, on account of his relationship with your illustrious Lordship, and knowing from him the love you bear towards him.

Targione Aggranda- mentOy vol. John Baptist , Apropos of this vessel, Dudley, in his Architecture, has the following marginal note in Italian, after one of his simetrie or mathematical proportions for ship-building: Giovanni Battista for the Grand-Duke Ferdinand. She carried 64 pezzi grossi great guns , was a rare and strong sailer, of great repute, and the terror of the Turks in these seas. Alone and unassisted she captured the Captain galleon of the Great Lord Gran Signore twice her own size and valuing a million.

She also, without assistance from the others, fought the Grand Turk's fleet of 48 Galleys and 2 l Galliazze,' and made the Generalissimo Bassia Bashaw of the sea in person to fly, as she very nearly captured his Galley. Lotti writing from London March 13th 1 says: Here is a letter of Signor Lotti from London, May 23rd , written all in cypher: I told your Highness that I had been at Deptford, and under pretence of knowing something about ship- 1 Archivio Mediceo, Filza I then thought he would accept the offer of going over to Italy in the service of your Highness.

But notwithstanding that he is ill satisfied here, and being now old no longer suits the heads of the profession, and that he has so little employ- ment, that for two years he has not drawn a penny of salary knowing also that with you he would have good pay, yet he decidedly, though much to his regret, excuses himself from coming, solely on account of his great age, he being 77 years old, and looking even more.

He tells me if I will go to Deptford again, he will give me the models of some of his ships, hoping thus to be useful to your Highness even here. Asking me about his pupil Sir Robert Dudley, he expressed how willingly he would have taught his profession in Italy to oblige him.

Then he told me there was a young man whom he had instructed, but as yet he was unknown, or he would not be allowed to leave the kingdom, and he would see if this youth would accept service under your Highness. We are expect- ing the return of that Naval Captain who brought orders from Sir Robert Dudley, and will send every thing i.

He writes much about a Captain Janvier, one of Dud- ley's master mariners probably the one spoken of 1 A letter to Lotti April 10th from the Tuscan Court offering this man the appointment, at double the salary he received in Eng- land, gives the name as Matthew Baker. XII, Lotti must have misread it.

There is great mystery about this, but it ends in the revelation of the whole story of Dudley's wife left in England and the consequent illegality of his present marriage ; of the English King calling the Pope to account for the dispensation given on false evidence, and the Pope's anger thereupon. On February 4th he writes in cypher: He Dudley has a wife and children here, the Pope has annulled his marriage to the woman he has with him, 1 and I, for my part, hold him incapable of any honorable action.

The mother of Robert Dudley also figures in this same letter, and in another of October 24th. In the first Lotti says that the Countess of Stafford often ap- plies to him for news of her son ; and in the latter, he encloses a letter from her to Dudley, adding this mysterious little sentence: Dudley would not accept an Earldom as a compensation for ac- knowledging himself illegitimate, and his mother no true wife ; and till this slur was taken off he refused to return to England.

Perhaps he realized that a worthy future was opening before him in Italy. As a naval man he had at once seen the great adaptability of Leghorn as an international port, and also opened the Grand-Duke's eyes to its capa- bilities.

Within a few years Leghorn, thanks to Dudley, had risen to importance, and was rapidly becoming a great commercial port. At which time also our author induced many English merchants that were his friends to go and reside there. Di quivi verso mezzogiorno si trova Livorno, il quote e porto di gran consider azione per commercio e la spiaggia e luona, ma il Molo e d' inven- zione dell' autore, ed e buonissimo porto, e sicuro per navi e galere per tutti i venti.

On page of the Arcano is a plan for the fortifications of the port and mole of Leghorn, and on page is another sketch under which Dudley has written: In his ff Military Architecture " we find this plan thus mentioned by Dudley: There are letters from the Tuscan Court giving Lotti instructions to try and re-instate Dudley in the favour of the King, adding that rc here he is known as a worthy knight, and of the utmost goodwill, and that he could not possibly entertain any idea of dis- loyalty or ill-faith towards King James or his state.

We will therefore that you do your best to elucidate the matter in his favor as far as you can for truth's sake. Lotti, as we have seen, took the English view that is the view held by the powerful and interested party of Sydney and Essex, and did little on Dudley's behalf, so little that in Dudley asked the Duke to legalize his marriage ; his wife also wrote a supplica- tion to the Duchess pleading her right on the score of the illegality of her husband's former marriages,' and the Pope's permission granted for this union with herself.

During this time Dudley's home in Florence was in Via dell'Amore, where he was a tenant of Cavalier Annibale Orlandini ; and here in , his first child by his wife Elizabeth Southwell was born, and named Maria, and in , a second child, Cosimo, was born. About this time Dudley wrote or began to write his first book on military and naval Architecture, for he always dignifies ship-building by this term.

This exists in three large half-bound volumes in manuscript, in the Specola or Museum of Natural History, Florence, where Dudley's nautical and mathematical instruments are preserved.

The first two volumes treat of the build- ing of ships, and were written in English. A note, proem to the third volume, which speaks of seven sorts of simetries symmetries , supposed to be written by Dudley's master-mariner Abram Kendal, says: About the fortifications of Ports, and the method of doing so, he has also written in English, for at that time, about , the Duke did not know enough of the Italian tongue to write that volume in the Volgare, but perhaps he will do so when he has the leisure.

He has also written a larger volume than these, on the true and real art of navigation, but this was written in England, with many curious mathematical and astronomical figures, and other things never before seen, such as nautical Instruments for the observation of the variations of longitude and latitude, and others for the horizontal and spiral Navigation, and about the Great Circles.

Of these, however, common sailors understand little, as also about the Marine Management and discipline, and about sea fighting and squadrons, which are amply treated in these volumes. Here is his heading, several years later, to the third volume in Italian: In quote li disegni stesso bastano, senza altro discorso lungo. The idiom, be it observed, is entirely English, though the words are Italian. Here is his own account of the second volume: The other of the fortefiing or ordering of Ports, Invented by R.

He had by this time got beyond the original seven. This vessell is of so much force in fight eather to offende, as wite cann not adde more to the force, and of sayle excellent beyonde all other Galleons. She can carie 90 of my Demicanns, 1 which sorte of peace is only of greate importance in a sea battayle and of so much consequence is this force, as the greatest Gallion in Englande carieth not 18 Demi- cannons: The last volume begins: It is thus headed: Al Conte Ruberto di Warwick privilegio di nuova in- venzione per aumentare la setaS To Earl Robert of Warwick, a patent for a new invention to improve silk.

Whether this new invention to improve the quality and increase the quantity of silk, as well as improve its manufacture and design, has anything to do with that branch of industry having continued to flourish in Italy till now, one cannot say. It gave him the exclusive right of using the invention at Pisa for twenty years. IX, stanza 3, armadio XII. The negotia- tions were conducted partly by Ottaviano Lotti, whose despatches we have quoted in the last chapter, and by Sir Thomas Challoner, who had been Prince Henry's tutor.

Dudley had probably suggested the marriage, in order to propitiate the English court and to serve his patrons the Medici.

Dudley was at the same time engaged in negotia- tions with Prince Henry for the sale to him of the great Kenilworth estate.

All these aspirations were See Appendix, n. In the Kenilworth affair, as in his law-suit, Dudley was treated harshly and unfairly. His estates were seized by the Crown, and granted to others, as were also the titles of Leicester and of Warwick. The said patent was probably drawn up by Holbourne, Solicitor general to Charles 1st, who was son-in-law to Alicia Dudley. In spite of his wrongs, Dudley and his wife attended the Florentine Court as Earl and Countess of Warwick, and indeed took a prominent position there.

In Dudley appeared as Judge in a Barrier a, or Tilting tournament, followed by a Masquerade, held in Florence on the 17th and 19th of February The fete is fully described in a book printed by Bartolommeo Sermartelli in For those who would like to know how Dudley and the Florentines amused themselves we will quote it.

On February 3rd a grand game of calcio football on Piazza Santa Croce, which all the Court had attended, was followed by a ball at the Palazzo Pitti. The guests danced till the third hour of night about nine o'clock when suddenly was heard in the Palace a great sound of drums and trumpets ; and not knowing what this portended, every one remained breathless resto sospeso I' animo when behold, a herald with a great number of torch bearers entered the Hall.

He was dressed in 1 See Appendix, n. His sur- coat was of cloth of gold with the arms of Eros and a broken thunderbolt beautifully embroidered on it. This herald was accompanied by 10 pages carrying torches, and richly dressed in white and gold Erme- sino 1 with plumed caps of a new and bizarre shape.

Having entered the room with a proud warlike mien, the herald spoke thus: The challenge came from Prince Ferdinand De Medici and Don Paolo Giordano Orsini, who offered to fight any other knights, for the good cause of the wrongs of Love, and of Venus, who had come to Florence from Cyprus and found themselves neglected. The tournament was held on the 17th of February in the theatre of the Palazzo Pitti, a room about 25 yards square, which was ornamented with statues and frescoes ; it had a stage and scenery at the end, and boxes and raised seats all round.

The knights fought in the centre. Ten Senators were deputed to elect 20 gentlemen as umpires among whom Sir Robert Dudley, who was famous in all knightly 1 A light Persian silk fabric so called from Ormuz, whence it was first imported into Europe.

Two large boxes were erected at opposite ends. Stephen ; and several other cavaliers of the same order. Then follows a detailed account of the tournament, with a description of the knights' dresses, their songs, and grand deeds, their fanciful names, and the celestial gods and goddesses that appeared to help and to hinder the champions as they did in old Homer's days.

The poems and dialogue were written by Ottavio Rinuccini. After the tournament all the actors made a torchlight procession through the city. On the 16th December Dudley's fourth child was born and the Archduchess Maria Maddalena, after whom she was named, was her god-mother. Her being god-mother to the daughter of the Dudley's shows how much they were esteemed at Court.

To propitiate King James 1st of England it is said that Dudley wrote and sent to him in the pamph- let ' For bridling the impertinence of Parliament. John, all eminent Parliamen- tary leaders of the popular party. They were charged with an attempt to make the Government odious by pretending that there was a design to adopt the mea- sures recommended in the paper, etc. The prosecution was stopped by the King's order, on its being disco- vered what the paper really was.

The prosecution had disastrous consequences for Sir Robert Cotton, who died 6th May The Biographia Britannica describes Dudley's tract ' as being in all respects as singular and as dangerous a paper as ever fell from the pen of man. Horace Walpole, who believed Dudley to have been the legitimate son of the great Earl of Leicester, observes when speaking of this paper in his ' Royal and Noble authors,' that, " considering how enterprising and dangerous a minister Dudley might have made, and what a variety of talents were called forth by his misfortunes, it would seem to have been fortunate both 70 PART IV.

We here give it entire as proof of this. Touching the First, having considered divers means, I find none so important to strengthen Your Majesty's regal authority, against all Oppositions and Practises of troublesome Spirits, and to bridle. The Reasons of the Suggests are these: London, ; vol. For these, and divers other weighty Reasons, it may be considered in this Place, to make Your Majesty more powerful and strong, some Orders be observed, that are used in fortified Countries, the Government whereof imports as much as the States themselves, I mean in Times of Doubt or Suspect, which are these ; Imprimis: That none wear Arms or Weapons at all, either in City or Country, but such as your Majesty may think fit to priviledge, and they to be enrolled ; 2nd That as many High-ways as conveniently may be done, be made passable through those Cities and Towns fortified, to constrain the Passengers to travel through them; 3rd That the Soldiers of Fortresses be sometimes chosen of another Nation, if subject to the same Prince ; but howsoever, not to be born in the same Province, or within forty or fifty Miles of the For- tress, and not to have Friends or Correspondency near it; T'2 PART IV.

And that the Gates of each City be shut all Night, and keys kept by the Mayor or Governor ; 5th Also Inn-keepers to deliver the Names of all unknown Passengers that lodge in their Houses ; and if they stay suspiciously at any Time to present them to the Governor.

Whereby dangerous Persons seeing these strict Courses, will be more wary of their Actions, and thereby mis- chievous Attempts will be prevented. All which being referred to your Majesty's wise Consideration, it is meet for me withal to give you some Satisfaction of the Charge and Time to per- form what is purposed, that you may not be discouraged in the Difficulty of the one, or Prolongation of the Other ; both which Doubts are resolved in one and the same Reason, in respect that in England each chief Town commonly hath a ruinated Castle, well seated for strength, whose Foundation and stones remaining, may be both quickly repaired for this Use, and with little Charge and Industry made strong enough, I hope, for this Purpose, within the Space of one Year ; by adding withal Bul- warks and Rampiers for the Ordnance, according to the Rules of Fortification.

The Ordnance for these Forts may be of Iron, not to disfurnish your Majesty's Navy, or be at a greater Charge than is needful. To maintain Yearly the Fort, I make account an ordinary Pay, three thousand Men will be sufficient, and will require Forty thousand Pound charge per Annum, or thereabouts, being an Expense that inferior Princes undergo, for their necessary Safety.

All which prevention added to the invincible Sea-force your Majesty hath already and will have, will make you the most powerful and obeyed King of the World. Which I could like- wise confirm by many Examples, but I omit them for brevity, and not to confuse your Majesty with too much matter. Your Majesty may find by the Scope of this Discourse, the Means shewed in general to bridle your Subjects, that may be either discontent or obstinate.

And therefore have first thought fit, for better prevention thereof to make known to your Majesty the Purpose of a general Oath your Subjects may take for sure avoiding of all Rubs, that may hinder the Conclusion of these Businesses.

It is further meant, That no Subject, upon Pain of High Trea- son, may refuse the same Oath, containing only Matter of Al- legiance, and not scruples in Points of Conscience, that may give Pretence not to be denied.

How necessary the dangerous supremacy of Parliaments' Usurpation is to be prevented, the Example of Lewis the Eleventh, King of France, doth manifest, who found the like Opposition as your Majesty doth, and by his Wisdom suppressed it. And, to the Purpose here intended, which is not to put down altogether Parliaments and their Authority, being in many Cases very necessary and fit, but to abridge them so far, as they seek to derogate from your Majesty's regal Authority, and Advancement of your Greatness.

There is another Means also more certain than this to bring to pass the Oath more easily, as also your Profit, and what else pretended ; which here I omit for brevity, requiring a long Discourse by itself, and have set it down in particular Instruc- tions to inform your Majesty.

Wherein I should observe both some reasonable Content to the People, as also consider the great Expenses that Princes have now-a-days, more than in Times past, to maintain their Greatness, and safety of their Subjects, who, if they have not Wit or Will to consider their own Interest so much indifferently, your Majesty's Wisdom must repair their Defects, and force them to it by compulsion, but I hope there shall be no such cause, in Points so reasonable to increase your Majesty's Revenue, wherein I set down divers Means for your gracious self to make choice of either All or Part at your Pleasure, and to put it in execution by such Degrees and Cautions, as your great Wisdom shall think fit in a Business of this Nature.

The first Means or Course intended to increase your Majesty's Revenues or Profits withal is of greatest Conse- quence, and I call it a Decimation, being so termed in Italy, where in some Parts it is in Use, importing the Tenth of all Subjects' Estates, to be paid as a yearly Rent to their Prince, and as well monied men in Towns, as Landed men in the Coun- tries, their Value and Estates esteemed justly as it is to the true Value, though with Reason ; and this paid yearly in money.

Which Course applied in England for your Majesty's Service, may serve instead of Subsidies, Fifteens, and such like, which in this Case are fit to be released, for the Subject's Benefit and Content, in recompense of the said Decima, which will yield your Majesty more in certainty, than they do casually by Five hundred thousand Pounds per annum at the least.

So as if your Majesty's Lands be already but sixty thousand Pounds per Ann. And this is the rather to be done, and the present Course changed, because it hath been a Custom used merely to cousen the King.

Item, Whereas most Princes do receive the Benefit of Salt in their own Hands, as a Matter of great Profit, because they receive it at the lowest Price possible, and rent it at double gain yearly, the same Course used by your Majesty, were worth at least One hundred and fifty thousand Pounds per Annum.

It is likewise in other Parts that all Weights and Measures of the Land, either in private Houses, Shops, or publick Markets, should be viewed to be just, and sealed once a Year, paying to the Prince for it, which in England, applied to your Majesty, with Order to pay sixpence for the Sealing of each said Weight or Measure, would yield near Sixty thousand Pounds per Annum. Item, Whereas the Inns and Victualling houses in England are more chargeable to the Travellers, than in other Countries, it were good for your Majesty to limit them to certain Ordinaries and raise besides a large Imposition, as is used in Tuscany, and other Parts ; that is, a Prohibiting all Inns and "Victualling-houses, but such as shall pay it ; and to impose upon the Chief Inns and Taverns, to pay ten Pounds a year to your Majesty, and the worst five Pounds per Annum, and all Ale-houses twenty Shillings per Annum, more or less, as they are in Custom.

Of all Sorts there are so many in England, that this Impost may well yield One hundred thousand pounds per Annum to your Majesty. Item, In Tuscany, and other Parts, there is a Gabella of all Cattel, or Flesh, and Horses sold in Markets, paying three or four per Cent of what they are sold for, which by conjecture may be worth in England two hundred thousand Pounds per Annum, using the like Custom upon Fish, and other Victuals Bread excepted and for this Cause, Flesh and Fish and Victuals in the Markets, to be prised and sold by Weight, whereby the Subject saveth more in not being cousened, than the Imposition impair eth them.

As also seven per Cent upon all Dowries, or Marriage-monies. The like, if it be justly used in England, were worth at least One hundred thousand Pounds per Annum ; with many other Taxations upon Meal, and upon all Merchandises in all Towns, as well as Port Towns, which here I omit, with divers others, as not fit for England.

And in satisfaction of the Subject for these Taxes, your Majesty may be pleased to release them of Wardships, and to enjoy all their Estates at eighteen years old, and in the mean Time, their Profits to be preserved for their own Benefit.

Item, Some of the former Taxations used in Ireland and in Scotland, as may easily be brought about by the first Example thereof used in England, may very well be made to increase your Revenue there, more than it is by Two hundred thousand Pounds per Annum. Adding also Notaries, Attornies, and such like, to pay some Proportion Yearly towards it, for being allowed by Your Majesty to practise, and prohibit- ing else any to practise in such Places. Item, I know an assured course in your Majesty's Navy, which may save at least Forty thousand Pounds per Annum, which requiring a whole Discourse by itself, I omit ; only promise you to do it, when- soever you command.

Item, Whereas your Majesty's Laws do command the strict keeping of Fasting-days, you may also prohibit on those Days to eat Eggs, Cheese and White-meats, but only such as are contented to pay Eighteen Pence a Year for the Liberty to eat them, and the better Sort Ten Shillings. The Employment of this may be for the Defence of the Land, in maintaining the Navy, Garrisons, and such like, much after the Fashion of a Crusado in Spain, as your Majesty knoweth, being first begun there, under the Pretence to defend the Land against the Moors.

And the same used in England, as aforesaid, may very well yield, one Year with another, One hundred thousand Pounds, without any disgust to any, because it is at every One's Choice to give it or no. Two hundred thousand Pounds per Annum, by raising a certain Value upon their Lands, and some other Impositions ; which requiring a long Discourse by itself, I will omit it here, set- ting it down in my Instructions; It will save your Majesty at least One hundred thousand Pounds per Annum, to make it Pain of Death, and confiscation of Goods and Lands, for any of the.

Officiers to cousen you, which now is much to be feared they do, or else they could not be so rich ; and herein to allow a fourth Part Benefit to them that shall find out the cousenage. Here is not meant Officers of State, as the Lord Treasurer, etc. Suppose it to be but One Million and a half as assuredly your Majesty may make by these Courses set down, yet it is much more than I promised in my Letter, for your Majesty's Service. Besides, some Sums of Money in present, by the Courses following: By the Prince's marriage, to make all the Earls in England Grandees of Spain, and Prin- cipi, with such like Priviledges, and to pay Twenty thousand Pounds apiece for it ; 2nd As also, if you make them Foeditaries of the Towns belonging to their Earldoms, if they will pay for it besides, as they do to the King of Spain in the Kingdom of Naples.

And so likewise Barons, to be made Earls and Peers, to pay Nineteen thousand Pounds apiece, I think might yield Five hundred thousand Pounds, and oblige them more sure to his Majesty ; 3rd To make choice of Two hundred of the rich- est Men in England in Estate, that be not Noblemen, and make them Titulate, as is used in Naples, and paying for it ; that is, a Duke Thirty thousand Pounds ; a Marquess Fifteen thousand Pounds: It is to be understood, that the antient Nobility of Barons made Earls, are to precede these as Peers, though these be made Marquesses or Dukes ; this may raise a Million of Pounds and more unto your Majesty.

To make Gen- tlemen of low Quality, and Francklins, and rich Farmers, Esquires, to precede them, would yield your Majesty also a great sum of money in present. Other Courses also, that may make present Money, I shall study for your Majesty's Service, and, as I find them out, acquaint you withal. Lastly, To conclude all these Discourses, by the Application of this Course used for your Profit, That it is not only the Means to make you the richest King that ever England had, but also the Safety augmented thereby to be most secure, besides what was shewed in the first Part of this Discourse, I mean, by the Occasion of this Taxation, and raising of Monies, your Majesty shall have Cause and Means to imploy in all Places of the Land so many Officers and Ministers, to be obliged to you for their own Good and Interest, as nothing can be attempted against your Person, or royal State, over Land, but some of them shall in all probability, have Means to find it out, and hinder it.

Besides, this Course will detect many Discorders and Abuses in the publick Government, which were hard to be discovered by Men indifferent. To prohibit gorgeous and costly Apparel to be worn, but by Persons of good Quality, shall save the Gentry of the Kingdom much more Money, than they shall be taxed to pay unto your Majesty. Such was Dudley's advice to King James after a few years study of political finance at the Court of Tuscany. Fortunately his suggestions did not suit the English Government.

Since Dudley's arrival in Tuscany several changes had taken place. On the 6th of April , Dudley bought from Lo- dovico and Ferdinando, brothers, sons of Orazio, the son of Luigi Rucellai, for the sum of four thousand scudi, some house property in the parish of San Pancrazio in Florence, where he built for himself a palace.

On his death in this passed to his descendants of the Dudley and Paleotti families, was sold by them, and is now the property of the Bordoni family. The site is a wedge shaped piece of ground between the Via della Spada, and Via della Yigna Nuova, with the very narrow end facing Palazzo Strozzi. The illustration we give is from an old water-colour showing in its original position the loggia of the opposite Palazzo Corsi-Salviati now belonging to the Marchesa Arconati-Visconti born Peyrat , before the Via de' Tornabuoni was enlarged.

It was removed to the other end, of the front of that palace in the year The principal front, consisting of four stories in- cluding the ground floor which was let out for shops with ten windows to each story, looks on Via della Vigna Nuova, and measures about one hundred and thirty five feet in length. The truncated part of the wedge facing the Via degli Strozzi, and on which appear the Rucellai arms and a little tabernacle, is only about six feet wide.

It has been said that Bar- tolommeo Ammannati was the architect, but dates render that doubtful. It is more probable that Dudley himself designed or directed the building of the palace. In Lord Herbert's relation there is an evident mistake as to dates. He speaks of Dudley as having the title of Earl and Duke of Northumberland given to him by the Emperor.

Lord Herbert also mentions, not very respectfully, K the hand- some Mrs Sudel, whom he Dudley carried away with him out of England, and was there in Florence taken for his wife. XV of the Appendix to this Memoir, there is an account of the purchase and sale, and a description of the palace and its suc- cessive owners.

He was much occupied at Pisa and Leghorn, in the building of ships, and in new inventions for their more speedy locomotion. He had enemies also, probably some Italian ship-builders or merchants who, jealous of his success, tried to throw discredit on his vessels, one of which had been named St.

Cosimo after the Grand-Duke. We will give a free translation of a postscript to a letter written by Dudley to Cav. I am ready to assert in their presence that the new galley floats as well, and is 1 The pronoun ' they ' here is not explained, the persons referred to being evidently known to Cioli.

Cosimo, but that if they want it to answer the helm, they should not over-weight it with more stones or sand, than they put in the other boats. I do not believe that they do this from ignorance, it being a common and well-known fact that too much weight puts a vessel too deep in water.

When a boat is once proved to float well, and answer the helm, it does not lose the qualities, therefore they must account for it in this case. And further I reply, that even if it were true that it sinks so deep as to impede its speed, I certify his Eoyal Highness that in two days I would remedy the defect by a stratagem of my own, which has never been revealed.

Of this you may be quite sure. As to what Madame says of the St. Cosimo, though it is my own building, I say with truth it is the very best work, and her ship-masters could not do better than imitate it. Yet even that at- tracted such jealousy and hindrance, that it was kept on the stocks two years before it could be brought to perfection; so we must have patience also with this new one, and let the envy and ill-feeling work off a little, till people better recognize the quality of the ship.

I who know both one and the other, arid have seen them both tried, assure you that if the St. Co- simo is good, this one will never be bad. Cosimo has this advantage I watched over the building of it till the hull was perfectly finished, while for this I merely gave the design, and only inspected the work when it was ready for trial. I have also thought of a rt curiosity " in the matter of a new form of oars, which row with more force and yet facility. I hope these will prove a great success.

I have sent oars of the kind to be tried on a galleon at Leghorn and they write me word that they succeed very well. Before returning to Florence I shall go down to Leg- horn and see the effect, and also inspect the Sassaja and Petacda as lately commanded by his Serene High- ness. I beg you also to thank his Serene Highness for the letter written by him in favor of my cause at Rome to Monsignor Torelli, Deputy Judge, who has given the sentence in my favor, as I desired, and which is of great importance to me.

It seems that as the Petacda and Sassaja were ready to sail for Elba, twenty Englishmen from Dup- par's ships, 2 under a renegade Fleming named Rhys, 1 It does not seem that this cause at Rome had anything to do with the later one in the Curia Apostolica, which was in He had however no right to board the Duke of Tuscany's ships. The Captain flew to the helm and put his men on guard, but the assailants threw several of them into the hold, and disabled others. Then cutting off three anchors and setting sail, they tried to escape with the ship, but in so doing they collided with the Sassaja and ran aground.

By this time the harbour, and the fortress of the port were aroused, soldiers and guards were despatched, and a general melee ensued, resulting in Rhys being captured with 47 of his men, who were thrown into the prison at Leghorn to await the Grand-Duke's orders. In another letter dated from Leghorn May 20th , Dudley reports on the two new galley ships he has built at Leghorn, and of the success of his own new oars, which the comite crew and the galley slaves find a great improvement, as they are less fatiguing to use, and make more way; they also economise in the expense of tow or rope stroppi which in the course of a year mounts up to scudi.

He says he has been ill of a fever arising from a cut by some instrument, and the doctor would not hear of his tra- velling. This fever he cured with a wonderful powder of his own invention.

As we shall see below, he had medical proclivities, and his Will reveals the fact that he kept a private medicine chest, which he calls his cerusicheria. This trait in the versatility of Dudley's tastes is curiously shown in a medical book written in by Marco Cornacchini, Professor of medicine at Pisa, and dedicated ad Illustrissimum D. The whole book sings the praises of, and gives the method for using, a certain curative powder invented by Dudley, which, according to Cor- nacchini's title page, seems to cure everything.

It runs Methodus qua omnes humani corporis affectiones ab Jiumo- ribus copia, etc. We are told that when Dudley himself was ill of that fever we have mentioned on his way from Pisa, he put it to flight by means of this powder alone, and also that he cured his " most illustrious spouse " of a fever in the same way. Then Cornacchini runs over a list of grand ecclesiastics, gallant knights, and sober citi- zens who have been healed of their various mortal diseases by this potent panacea.

It seems to have been composed among other ingredients of Antimony, Scammony, and Cream of Tartar. From this we see that Robert Dudley the se- cond had the same taste for medicaments as his father Robert Dudley the first, but that he used his recipes for life and not for death. Le jardinier a toujours un gros sexe mais aussi un très joli luc.

Mis à nu sous couverture. Hot Mustang and co… 2. Voyage au bout du vice roman érotique, bisexuel. Le jardinier a un grand sécateur mais surtout un gros sexe. Prélude à Suncrest Hill. Histoires BDSM entre hommes 5 histoires. Dernières nouvelles des Holland. Gay pour un salaire.

La Loi de l'Attraction. Hot Mustang and co…. La Meute des SixLunes, 1 - Elijah. D'hétéro à petite lopette! Brother Livre gay, roman gay. La Meute des SixLunes, hors-série - Recueil.

La force de la meute. Avec un homme devant ma femme. Vengeance pour Aaron Schock. Folie avec le père de mon meilleur ami! Hot Mustang and co… 3. Guide pour apprivoiser un dragon. Un Ranch au Montana. Réclamé par Deux Ours. Soumission masculine - Chapitre 1. Le mec de Glamour. Domination et autres déviances. Le parfum de l'interdit. Un hétéro pour le moin curieux. La rotonde aux objets.

Au milieu de nulle part. Les cowboys se murent dans le silence. On ne sait jamais. Un pari, 5 rendez-vous. Un hiver en Australie. Dominé Par Le Capitaine. Sous la Douche Avec Deux Hommes: Black Night, Dark Desires: Soumis Aux Cambrioleurs Vol.

Porno fait maison escort lorraine -

He has procured an authentic mandate, but as I have no kind of instructions from your Excellency, I cannot decide without the express command of my most Serene Sovereign, to mix myself in other people's affairs, especially affairs of such a na- ture as these, in which one would daily be obliged to treat with persons of State, porno fait maison escort lorraine. A neighbouring farm, now my property, belonged to the same Dudleys, and their descendants, the Paleotti of Bologna. The following yearthe first wedding in the family took place. All which being referred to your Majesty's wise Consideration, it is meet for me withal to give you some Satisfaction of the Charge and Time to per- form what is purposed, that you may not be discouraged in the Difficulty of the one, or Prolongation of the Other ; both "porno fait maison escort lorraine" Doubts are resolved in one and the same Reason, in respect lesbienne anal escort toulouse in England each chief Town commonly hath a ruinated Castle, well seated for strength, whose Foundation and stones remaining, may be both quickly repaired for this Use, and with little Charge and Industry made strong enough, I hope, for this Purpose, within the Space of one Year ; by adding withal Bul- warks and Rampiers for the Ordnance, according to the Rules of Fortification. He did not however obtain his wish; whether from Dud- ley's want of diplomacy, or the Grand-Duke's reluctance to ask favours of the Republic of Lucca, who had exiled Salvetti, does not appear. Histoires BDSM entre hommes 5 histoires. Come scrivere un'ottima recensione Fare Dicci quale ti è piaciuto di più e quale di meno Descrivi lo stile dell'autore Spiega i motivi della tua valutazione Non usare un linguaggio sgradevole e scurrile inserire dati personali rivelare anticipazioni o prezzi dei libri riassumere la trama. Le Noz0e degli Dei, Court revels in Florence. He then sets forth his attainments, especially in the matter of ship-building and nautical and mil- itary command. Before returning to Florence I shall go down to Leg- horn and see the effect, and also inspect the Sassaja and Petacda as lately commanded by his Serene High- ness. She was a relative, probably mother of that young Count Appiani who married Anna Dudley. London Officialis prin- cipalis.

It is called the Direttorio Marittimo, and was written in very faulty Italian for the use and instruction of the officers of the Tuscan fleet. In it most of the subjects enlarged upon in the Arcano, are treated concisely, including R great circle sailing " and all kinds of navigation ; the admin- istrative management of a fleet, and its manoeuvres in a naval battle, etc. The book is in ancient covers of thick paper, and preceded by a dedication to the Grand-Duke, and by a sketch of Dudley's own naval life, written in his own hand with all his corrections and underlinings.

They are now much used by sales- men. The one on the Palazzo Strozzi is a flower stall. Mario Cornacchino's amus- ing old book on the Warwick powder, which was to the se- venteenth century what Holloway's pills are to the nineteenth. For a description of the volume I refer you to the Memoir. Whether Dudley took his ideas of political economy from the Italian government then in force and approved of by him ; whe- ther the book was a kind of Machiavellian satire on the Tuscan government ; or whether the Grand-Duke found Dudley's maxims more worthy of following than the English did, cannot be proved.

But certainly many of the measures advised by him are to this day in force in Italy, and are not, for modern life, good mea- sures. For instance Dudley advised that a Fortress should be in every town, the governor of which is not to be chosen from that town; that passports should be demanded for all travel- lers; that inn-keepers must take down the names of all those lodging with them ; that a tax should be put on salt, which is to be a government monopoly ; a decimal tax on men's estates ; the examining and stamping the weights every year ; taxes on every office and trade ; and " to make two hundred men titulate, and they to pay for their titles.

Vide the Order of St. Below is the Dudley coat of arms. It is dedicated ft All' Con licenza de' Sup. Giorgio d'Alega, li 20 Dicembre Mark's, and a poet withal.

And now a word about the homes of the Dudley, and what is left of them to the present day. The family home in the Vigna Nuova is still to be seen, and is so fully described in the text as to need no description here.

It has beautiful grounds and gardens with se- cular ilex and cypress trees, whose shadows certainly fell on Robert Dudley and his children when they walked there. In I spent a day at Piombino, the married home of Maria Princess of Piombino, Dudley's eldest daughter, and enjoyed a refreshing swim in the clear blue sea of the tiny bay.

It was then a very small port, opposite Rio in the Isle of Elba. Prob- ably in the seventeenth century it was a much more important place, and 'enlivened by the palace of the Appiani family.

It was here that Cosimo Dudley died in The Castle, which is well situated on high ground between Sarzana and Fivizzano, still existed in a deserted and neglected state.

The large marble coat-of-arms of the Malespini still holds its place over the principal entrance. It looked to me more like an English country house than an Italian feudal stronghold. In a small room in the Castle, once an oratory, there still remained a white marble slab, bordered by a strip of reddish Porto Venere marble with the following insription: This inscription which records the burial place of the young Earl of Pembroke, who died at Dudley's house in Florence, was removed a few years ago from Olivola 2 by the late Earl of Car- narvon, and is now preserved at Highclere Castle.

The other Dudley possessions at Fiesole, of which Don Carlo's son Don Antonio, a cleric, was the last possessor of the name, 1 Until the French Republican invasion at the end of the last century almost all that part of the country was possessed by the Malaspini, as feudal Lords under the Emperor ; and each of the family had his castle or stronghold.

This rambling preface is much more lengthy than I had intended to make it, but I could not resist the desire to lay before the reader everything that appeared to me interesting about Dudley, his family and descendants. The following Memoir will be a mere chronicle of the prin- cipal events in Dudley's life. It has no pretension to being a complete biography, but it is founded on facts, and supported by good evidence. My hope is that it may give as much plea- sure to the reader as it has given me in the writing of it.

In the Appendix, I have reproduced copies in the original language of all the most important manuscripts and documents, which I trust may prove of use to some future historian. I am not going to enter at length on the moot ques- tion of Dudley's legitimacy, on which point he was very unfairly treated.

Proofs were not wanting that Leicester and Lady Douglas had been married in the presence of well-known witnesses, but the marriage was not publicly acknowledged. Various reasons have been assigned for this concealment, some political and others private ; the most probable seems to be the one given by the author of i Leycester's Commonwealth,' 1 i.

The same contemporary author writes, in speaking of Leicester's subsequent marriage to Lady Essex: During his earliest years the boy Dudley lived with his mother, but when he was about five years old she gave him up to his father's charge.

This was in , the year in which the unacknowledged wife was driven to profit by the freedom forced upon her, and for pro- tection to marry Sir Edward Stafford of Grafton. Consequently his son Robert was placed at school, or more probably resided in the house and under the care of Sir John Dudley, a kinsman of the Earl of Leices- ter, who lived says Lysons, in his Magna Britannia at Stoke Newington, and not at Newington Butts as stated by others.

Lysons in his mention of Sir John Dudley repeats the tradition of Leicester himself having visited his little son there. Owen, or Evan, Jones, who was subsequently witness for Sir Robert Dudley in the well- known trial of , confirms that statement.

In the boy was at a school, or with a private tutor at Offington, near Worthing in Sussex, under the charge of his uncle Ambrose, Earl of Warwick, who had a residence at or near Worthing.

The memory of his having lived there is still preserved at Worth- ing, in the name of Warwick House. In 1 5 88 he was at the University of Oxford. In the same year, , he served at the camp of Tilbury as Colonel under his father the Earl of Leices- ter, who was Generalissimo.

This fact is stated by himself in the Arcano del Mare and in his MS. In , the Earl of Leicester died at Cornbury, when on his way to Kenilworth. The inserting of the fatal word l base ' was probably due to the unbounded influence obtained over Leicester by his third wife Lettice Knollys, the widow of Walter Devereux, Earl of Essex. For if Leicester in his last will had owned his son Robert by Lady Douglas Sheffield, to be his legitimate son, his sub- sequent marriage with Lettice Knollys, Countess of Essex, as an inevitable consequence became null and void, and she would have lost her great position as Leicester's lawful wife and widow.

As to Lady Sheffield's suspicion that some system of slow poisoning was tried upon her, it is curious to observe that Leicester was more than once suspected of having persons, who stood in his way, removed by poison, to name two of them, the husband of Lady Douglas Sheffield, and the husband of Lettice Knollys, Countess of Essex. Giulio Borgherini, an Italian fol- lower of Leicester's, commonly called Doctor Julio, was supposed to be the provider of the poison.

The death of the Earl of Essex on August 21 st is reported by the author of Leicester's Commonwealth page , who adds " and so he died in the way of an extreme flux, caused by an Italian recipe, as all his friends are well assured, the maker whereof was a Chyrurgeon as is believed that then was newly come to my Lord from Italy, 1 a cunning man and sure in operation.

Nor must you marvaile though all 1 Here the author is mistaken, Dr Julio having been one of the witnesses of Lady Sheffield's marriage some years previously.

The same consideration as to her position, also accounts for her fierce and successful opposition to Sir Robert Dudley's attempts in to prove the marriage of his father and mother, and in consequence his own legitimacy.

In his uncle Ambrose, Earl of Warwick, died, and Dudley came into possession of Kenil worth, and of the other estates left to him by his father's will. The Queen however refused her con- sent on account of Dudley's youth, and Frances Vava- sour subsequently married Thomas Shirley, of the Fer- rers family.

London Officialis prin- cipalis. From a boy he al- ways had a love of the sea, and for its development he shall speak for himself. He determined at any cost to enter the marine army, on which at that time the reputation and greatness of England depended.

He had also a great desire to discover new countries, therefore from the age of 17 he gave himself to the study of navi- gation, and of marine discipline and war. In fact he wanted to blend naval command together with military emprise by land, in India and other parts to which navigation should take him.

Therefore he built and manned ships of war, in which he sought to place the best pilots that were to be found, and in whose great knowledge and experience he trusted implicitly. But although Queen Elizabeth then reigning in England would not allow such a mere youth to break his maiden lance in an emprise requiring so much knowledge of the world, and in which many veteran Captains had fared so ill, 1 and lost both men and ships, she contented him by allowing him to make a voyage.

Thus it came to pass that in he began this voyage to the West Indies, to discover and open the way to the Empire of Guiana or Walliana sic in America, much renowned in those times as a great and wealthy nation ; which he did with such success, being both General of his men and Admiral of his ships, that he made himself master of the Island of Trinidad, discovered Guiana, 2 fought and captured the galleons of the enemy, returning at the year's end with much useful spoil.

He took the command of the great English fleet in , in the absence of his uncle, the Earl of Nottingham, High Ad- miral. In questo golfo e porto di Cades: In the which and divers other actions and voyages he has learned what he knows of the art of navigation, and the practice of command and ma- rine and military discipline combined.

He gave a much more detailed account of his maiden emprise, the voyage to Trinidad, in a letter to the Rev. In which voyage he and his company tooke and sunke nine Spanish ships whereof one was an armada of tunnes. Written at the request of Mr Richard Hackluyt. Upon this day, my selfe in the " Beare," a ship of tunnes, as Admirall ; and Captaine Munck in the " Beare 's Whelpe, 1 ' Vice-Admirall ; with two small pinnesses, called the " Frisking " and the ff Eare- wig," I passed through the Needles, and within two days after bare in with Plimmouth.

But I was en- forced to returne backe. Vincent, the north and south capes of Spaine. In which space, having many chases, I could meet there may be after occasion to employ him, and therefore our desire is for the good of her Majesty's service that he might be provided of some competent living to reside in these parts. And because we are given to understand that the benefice of great Allhallows, in Thames Street, is like to be void, being in your Lordship's gift , we do ear- nestly pray your good Lordship, that at our mediation, you will be pleased to bestow the same, if by the decease of the incumbent it shall be void, on this learned and painful minister.

Wherein your Lordship shall not only have due and honorable consideration of his deserts and pains, but give us occasion to think ourselves beholden unto you in granting your goodwill unto him at our motion and entreaty. Leaving these Spanish shores, I directed my course, the 14 th of December, towards the Isles of the Canaries.

Here I lingered twelve dayes for two reasons: I tooke two very fine caravels under the calmes of Tenerif and Palma, which both refreshed and amended my company, and made me a fleet of 3 sailes. Thus cheared as a desolate traveller, with the company of my small and newe erected Fleete, I continued my purpose for the West Indies.

I now caused my Master Abraham Kendall to shape his course directly for the isle of Trinidad in the West Indies ; which after 22 dayes we descried, and the 1 st of February came to anker under a point thereof, called Curiapan, in a bay which was very full of pelicans, and I called it Pelican' Bay.

These Indians are a fine shaped and a gentle people, all naked and painted red, their commanders wearing crowns of feathers. These people did often resort unto my ship, and brought us hennes, hogs, plantans, potatos, pinos, tobacco, and many other pretie commodities, which they exchanged with us for hatch- ets, knives, hookes, belles and glasse buttons. The country is fertile, and ful of fruits, strange beasts, and foules, whereof munkeis, babions, and parats were in great abundance.

Right against the northernmost part of Trinidad, the maine was called the high land of Paria, the rest a very lowe land. Morucca I learned to be full of a greene stone called Tacarao, which is good for the stone. Caribes I learned to be man-eaters or canibals, and great enemies to the Islanders of Trinidad.

But they went from me, and entred into one of the mouthes of the great river Orenoque. The Fleete I found not, but foule weather enough to scatter many Fleetes ; which companies left inee not, till I came to the yles of Flores and Cuervo: And having spent all my powder, I was constrained to leave her, yet in such distresse without sailes and mastes, and hull so often shot through with my great ordinance betweene winde and water, that being three hundred leagues from land, I dare say, it was impos- sible for her to escape sinking.

Ives in Cornwall, about the latter end of May , scaping most dangerously in a great fogge the rocks of Silly. Perhaps the accompanying illustration may elucidate its complexities. Strumento per trovar T ora del flussl del Mare in di- versi luogJii.

Tondo di ottone diametro 1 braccio Fioren- tino. Sulla faccia dove vi e la scaletta: The Earl had been under arrest in his own house for some time, having offended the Queen though it is not precisely known for what reason.

Lotti, the Italian resident at London, opines that he had made some negotiations with the King of Scotland which were displeasing to Her Majesty of England. But this was too slow for the young rebel, who got his friends together, Dudley and Blount among them, and with followers and partizans, marched into London. The Earl of Essex, Dudley, Blount, and oth- ers were taken prisoners.

The Earl was subsequently beheaded, as we know to the Queen's eternal remorse. Dudley got off easily, being shortly after released. With one of these the young sailor, fresh from his voyages, fell in love, and being a ' heretik ' i.

The bride died soon after, in without issue, and in the same year he married Alice second daughter of Sir Thomas Leigh, Knight and Baronet of Stoneleigh, Warwickshire. From to Dudley was living partly in the country at Kenilworth, and partly in London.

Alicia Leigh during that time bore him four daughters: Anne, the third daughter, married the great lawyer, Sir Robert Holbourne, Solicitor general to Charles 1st. She died about Catherine, the fourth and youngest daughter, married that distinguished Royalist in the time of Charles 1st, Sir Richard Leveson, K.

These years of Dudley's married life with Alice Leigh were years full of worries to him. He was under the Queen's displeasure for his share in the Essex affair. It was also the time in which he was fighting at long odds for his honour, his name and nobility. For this cause he attempted by proceedings at law to prove himself the legitimate son of Robert, Earl of Leicester, and of Douglassia late Lady Sheffield, born Howard, widow of Lord Sheffield.

There seemed some hope of success, and the Ecclesiastical Court which, as the plague was raging in London, was that year held at Lichfield was still sifting his evidence, when on Feb- ruary 10th , Lady Lettice, late Countess of Essex, Leicester's widow, filed a bill in the Star Chamber, through Sir Edward Coke, against Sir Robert Dudley and others for defamation.

On October 18th of the same year Lord Henry Sydney of Penshurst, who had married Mary Dudley, Leicester's sister, stopped the proceedings at Lichfield, and brought all the depositions to the Star Chamber. Here Robert Dudley's efforts could avail nought, although, as we have before said, Lady Sheffield and many witnesses swore to her marriage at Esher. All the documents proving this were sealed up by order of the Council of the Star Chamber ; while the evidence on the side of Lettice Lady Essex's marriage with Leicester was taken alone and unquestioned.

On this partial evidence Lady Sheffield, Doctor Babington, and Sir Thomas Leigh Dudley's father-in-law were all found guilty of conspiracy This one-sided law-suit ended on May 13th , in a verdict against Dudley, his whole evidence being sealed up and put away, and in vain did he try to get the judgment reversed.

The trial evidently created opposite impressions in royal circles, for in James 1st, who ratified the decree of the Star Chamber, promulgated an act " to restrain all persons from marriage, until their former wives and former husbands be dead. Even her re- ligion, for he turned Roman Catholic, and then finding, or feigning to find, that his union with Alice Leigh was adulterous and against the Roman Catholic law of marriage his former wife Frances Vavasour not being dead at the time , he repudiated her.

This at least was Dudley's own excuse for the repudiation of 1 See Appendix, n. The patent of Charles 1st. It is a case of conscience which will be judged differently according as it is looked at from different points of view. No doubt his life with Alice Leigh after his character and rank were abased by the decree of the Star Chamber, was no longer a happy one; for we see from her subsequent behaviour that she was a woman who held greatly to rank and station.

At length in he took that decisive step which led him to the Grand-Ducal Court of Tuscany and exercised a ruling influence on all the rest of his life. Irritated and rendered desperate by this harsh and unjust treatment, he, at the end of , obtained the royal permission to travel in foreign parts for three years, and went, never to return ; moreover he did not go alone. He was accompanied by a young cousin of great spirit and beauty named Elizabeth South- well, eldest daughter of Sir Robert Southwell of Wood- rising, Norfolk.

Through this connection with Lady Shef- field's family the young people were first cousins once removed. A very interesting relazione report in the Medi- cean Archives contains a graphic account of this part of Dudley's life. It was written on July 26th by an Englishman in Paris, and is addressed to the Father Confessor of the Duchess of Tuscany, who had evidently set his reverence to obtain information about 1 Sir Robert Southwell was one of the most distinguished naval commanders in the year of the Invincible Spanish Armada, The infor- mant is very cautious, he signs himself with illeg- ible hieroglyphics, and says that for the future his signature will be R.

He supplicates that what he writes on English matters shall be communi- cated to no one but the Cavalier Yinta Minister of the Grand-Ducal Court , and he especially hopes that the Earl of Warwick will not know that he has written, for ff he holds him in great honour and is his faithful friend," but he adds, "the less secrets are divulged the more they remain secrets.

But the great influence of Cecil obtained the consent of the King, who was pres- ent when the sentence was given in favor of the Syd- neys, and against this Robert Dudley. In Lyons, where he resides at present, he is much honored, and gives it to be understood that he will return to England no more.

His young relative is constantly seen with him in public, as a kind of protest that there is no guilty concealment between them. That this elope- ment in high life caused a great sensation in England we gather from other documents. Strict orders were promptly given out, but at present we have heard no news. This gentleman is about 35 years of age, of exquisite stature, with a fair beard, and noble appearance. The fact has created great scandal.

But as he found that she had taken this step, not for love, but with the object of entering a monastery and 1 We find from other sources that she dressed as his page. Here Lotti adds in cypher: He presumed on their position as new converts to obtain the Pope dispensation from the laws of con- sanguinity, without by the way mentioning the little impediment of a wife and four children in England.

The dispensation given, they were duly married at Lyons, in spite of his wife Alice, who wrote to express her willingness to turn Roman Catholic and join him, bringing her children with her. All this is told in a letter from Antonio Standen addressed Al molto illustre Sig. Belisario Vint a Cav. Livorno, and dated Rome, January 27th It speaks also of King James' anger against Dudley for his marriage and assumption of the title of Earl of Warwick. It proves him to have been a spy of Queen Elizabeth's, living at Florence and professing Catholicism.

The letter is in the Archivio Mediceo, Filza He had a great wish to live in Florence, and thither he wended his way with Elizabeth as soon as they were married. He then sets forth his attainments, especially in the matter of ship-building and nautical and mil- itary command. There is a ' minute ' of the Florentine Secretary, to Lotti, Min- ister at London, dated March 17th , asking for information about Dudley, and protesting that the 1 See Appendix, n.

Grand-Duke in protecting him has no intention to offend the English King, etc. Information was also requested from Lyons, and from London by private means. The Medicean archives filza contain several of the relazwm in answer to these enquiries, from some of which we have already quoted. There is also a rough draft of a letter from the Grand-Duke of Tuscany to the Earl of Northampton, March 17th , saying: Besides the information I have received of his merits and valour, I have the more willingly received him, on account of his relationship with your illustrious Lordship, and knowing from him the love you bear towards him.

Targione Aggranda- mentOy vol. John Baptist , Apropos of this vessel, Dudley, in his Architecture, has the following marginal note in Italian, after one of his simetrie or mathematical proportions for ship-building: Giovanni Battista for the Grand-Duke Ferdinand. She carried 64 pezzi grossi great guns , was a rare and strong sailer, of great repute, and the terror of the Turks in these seas. Alone and unassisted she captured the Captain galleon of the Great Lord Gran Signore twice her own size and valuing a million.

She also, without assistance from the others, fought the Grand Turk's fleet of 48 Galleys and 2 l Galliazze,' and made the Generalissimo Bassia Bashaw of the sea in person to fly, as she very nearly captured his Galley. Lotti writing from London March 13th 1 says: Here is a letter of Signor Lotti from London, May 23rd , written all in cypher: I told your Highness that I had been at Deptford, and under pretence of knowing something about ship- 1 Archivio Mediceo, Filza I then thought he would accept the offer of going over to Italy in the service of your Highness.

But notwithstanding that he is ill satisfied here, and being now old no longer suits the heads of the profession, and that he has so little employ- ment, that for two years he has not drawn a penny of salary knowing also that with you he would have good pay, yet he decidedly, though much to his regret, excuses himself from coming, solely on account of his great age, he being 77 years old, and looking even more.

He tells me if I will go to Deptford again, he will give me the models of some of his ships, hoping thus to be useful to your Highness even here.

Asking me about his pupil Sir Robert Dudley, he expressed how willingly he would have taught his profession in Italy to oblige him. Then he told me there was a young man whom he had instructed, but as yet he was unknown, or he would not be allowed to leave the kingdom, and he would see if this youth would accept service under your Highness.

We are expect- ing the return of that Naval Captain who brought orders from Sir Robert Dudley, and will send every thing i. He writes much about a Captain Janvier, one of Dud- ley's master mariners probably the one spoken of 1 A letter to Lotti April 10th from the Tuscan Court offering this man the appointment, at double the salary he received in Eng- land, gives the name as Matthew Baker.

XII, Lotti must have misread it. There is great mystery about this, but it ends in the revelation of the whole story of Dudley's wife left in England and the consequent illegality of his present marriage ; of the English King calling the Pope to account for the dispensation given on false evidence, and the Pope's anger thereupon.

On February 4th he writes in cypher: He Dudley has a wife and children here, the Pope has annulled his marriage to the woman he has with him, 1 and I, for my part, hold him incapable of any honorable action.

The mother of Robert Dudley also figures in this same letter, and in another of October 24th. In the first Lotti says that the Countess of Stafford often ap- plies to him for news of her son ; and in the latter, he encloses a letter from her to Dudley, adding this mysterious little sentence: Dudley would not accept an Earldom as a compensation for ac- knowledging himself illegitimate, and his mother no true wife ; and till this slur was taken off he refused to return to England. Perhaps he realized that a worthy future was opening before him in Italy.

As a naval man he had at once seen the great adaptability of Leghorn as an international port, and also opened the Grand-Duke's eyes to its capa- bilities.

Within a few years Leghorn, thanks to Dudley, had risen to importance, and was rapidly becoming a great commercial port. At which time also our author induced many English merchants that were his friends to go and reside there. Di quivi verso mezzogiorno si trova Livorno, il quote e porto di gran consider azione per commercio e la spiaggia e luona, ma il Molo e d' inven- zione dell' autore, ed e buonissimo porto, e sicuro per navi e galere per tutti i venti.

On page of the Arcano is a plan for the fortifications of the port and mole of Leghorn, and on page is another sketch under which Dudley has written: In his ff Military Architecture " we find this plan thus mentioned by Dudley: There are letters from the Tuscan Court giving Lotti instructions to try and re-instate Dudley in the favour of the King, adding that rc here he is known as a worthy knight, and of the utmost goodwill, and that he could not possibly entertain any idea of dis- loyalty or ill-faith towards King James or his state.

We will therefore that you do your best to elucidate the matter in his favor as far as you can for truth's sake. Lotti, as we have seen, took the English view that is the view held by the powerful and interested party of Sydney and Essex, and did little on Dudley's behalf, so little that in Dudley asked the Duke to legalize his marriage ; his wife also wrote a supplica- tion to the Duchess pleading her right on the score of the illegality of her husband's former marriages,' and the Pope's permission granted for this union with herself.

During this time Dudley's home in Florence was in Via dell'Amore, where he was a tenant of Cavalier Annibale Orlandini ; and here in , his first child by his wife Elizabeth Southwell was born, and named Maria, and in , a second child, Cosimo, was born. About this time Dudley wrote or began to write his first book on military and naval Architecture, for he always dignifies ship-building by this term.

This exists in three large half-bound volumes in manuscript, in the Specola or Museum of Natural History, Florence, where Dudley's nautical and mathematical instruments are preserved.

The first two volumes treat of the build- ing of ships, and were written in English. A note, proem to the third volume, which speaks of seven sorts of simetries symmetries , supposed to be written by Dudley's master-mariner Abram Kendal, says: About the fortifications of Ports, and the method of doing so, he has also written in English, for at that time, about , the Duke did not know enough of the Italian tongue to write that volume in the Volgare, but perhaps he will do so when he has the leisure.

He has also written a larger volume than these, on the true and real art of navigation, but this was written in England, with many curious mathematical and astronomical figures, and other things never before seen, such as nautical Instruments for the observation of the variations of longitude and latitude, and others for the horizontal and spiral Navigation, and about the Great Circles.

Of these, however, common sailors understand little, as also about the Marine Management and discipline, and about sea fighting and squadrons, which are amply treated in these volumes. Here is his heading, several years later, to the third volume in Italian: In quote li disegni stesso bastano, senza altro discorso lungo.

The idiom, be it observed, is entirely English, though the words are Italian. Here is his own account of the second volume: The other of the fortefiing or ordering of Ports, Invented by R. He had by this time got beyond the original seven. This vessell is of so much force in fight eather to offende, as wite cann not adde more to the force, and of sayle excellent beyonde all other Galleons.

She can carie 90 of my Demicanns, 1 which sorte of peace is only of greate importance in a sea battayle and of so much consequence is this force, as the greatest Gallion in Englande carieth not 18 Demi- cannons: The last volume begins: It is thus headed: Al Conte Ruberto di Warwick privilegio di nuova in- venzione per aumentare la setaS To Earl Robert of Warwick, a patent for a new invention to improve silk.

Whether this new invention to improve the quality and increase the quantity of silk, as well as improve its manufacture and design, has anything to do with that branch of industry having continued to flourish in Italy till now, one cannot say. It gave him the exclusive right of using the invention at Pisa for twenty years.

IX, stanza 3, armadio XII. The negotia- tions were conducted partly by Ottaviano Lotti, whose despatches we have quoted in the last chapter, and by Sir Thomas Challoner, who had been Prince Henry's tutor. Dudley had probably suggested the marriage, in order to propitiate the English court and to serve his patrons the Medici.

Dudley was at the same time engaged in negotia- tions with Prince Henry for the sale to him of the great Kenilworth estate. All these aspirations were See Appendix, n. In the Kenilworth affair, as in his law-suit, Dudley was treated harshly and unfairly. His estates were seized by the Crown, and granted to others, as were also the titles of Leicester and of Warwick. The said patent was probably drawn up by Holbourne, Solicitor general to Charles 1st, who was son-in-law to Alicia Dudley. In spite of his wrongs, Dudley and his wife attended the Florentine Court as Earl and Countess of Warwick, and indeed took a prominent position there.

In Dudley appeared as Judge in a Barrier a, or Tilting tournament, followed by a Masquerade, held in Florence on the 17th and 19th of February The fete is fully described in a book printed by Bartolommeo Sermartelli in For those who would like to know how Dudley and the Florentines amused themselves we will quote it. On February 3rd a grand game of calcio football on Piazza Santa Croce, which all the Court had attended, was followed by a ball at the Palazzo Pitti. The guests danced till the third hour of night about nine o'clock when suddenly was heard in the Palace a great sound of drums and trumpets ; and not knowing what this portended, every one remained breathless resto sospeso I' animo when behold, a herald with a great number of torch bearers entered the Hall.

He was dressed in 1 See Appendix, n. His sur- coat was of cloth of gold with the arms of Eros and a broken thunderbolt beautifully embroidered on it. This herald was accompanied by 10 pages carrying torches, and richly dressed in white and gold Erme- sino 1 with plumed caps of a new and bizarre shape. Having entered the room with a proud warlike mien, the herald spoke thus: The challenge came from Prince Ferdinand De Medici and Don Paolo Giordano Orsini, who offered to fight any other knights, for the good cause of the wrongs of Love, and of Venus, who had come to Florence from Cyprus and found themselves neglected.

The tournament was held on the 17th of February in the theatre of the Palazzo Pitti, a room about 25 yards square, which was ornamented with statues and frescoes ; it had a stage and scenery at the end, and boxes and raised seats all round. The knights fought in the centre. Ten Senators were deputed to elect 20 gentlemen as umpires among whom Sir Robert Dudley, who was famous in all knightly 1 A light Persian silk fabric so called from Ormuz, whence it was first imported into Europe.

Two large boxes were erected at opposite ends. Stephen ; and several other cavaliers of the same order. Then follows a detailed account of the tournament, with a description of the knights' dresses, their songs, and grand deeds, their fanciful names, and the celestial gods and goddesses that appeared to help and to hinder the champions as they did in old Homer's days. The poems and dialogue were written by Ottavio Rinuccini. After the tournament all the actors made a torchlight procession through the city.

On the 16th December Dudley's fourth child was born and the Archduchess Maria Maddalena, after whom she was named, was her god-mother. Her being god-mother to the daughter of the Dudley's shows how much they were esteemed at Court. To propitiate King James 1st of England it is said that Dudley wrote and sent to him in the pamph- let ' For bridling the impertinence of Parliament.

John, all eminent Parliamen- tary leaders of the popular party. They were charged with an attempt to make the Government odious by pretending that there was a design to adopt the mea- sures recommended in the paper, etc.

The prosecution was stopped by the King's order, on its being disco- vered what the paper really was. The prosecution had disastrous consequences for Sir Robert Cotton, who died 6th May The Biographia Britannica describes Dudley's tract ' as being in all respects as singular and as dangerous a paper as ever fell from the pen of man.

Horace Walpole, who believed Dudley to have been the legitimate son of the great Earl of Leicester, observes when speaking of this paper in his ' Royal and Noble authors,' that, " considering how enterprising and dangerous a minister Dudley might have made, and what a variety of talents were called forth by his misfortunes, it would seem to have been fortunate both 70 PART IV.

We here give it entire as proof of this. Touching the First, having considered divers means, I find none so important to strengthen Your Majesty's regal authority, against all Oppositions and Practises of troublesome Spirits, and to bridle. The Reasons of the Suggests are these: London, ; vol. For these, and divers other weighty Reasons, it may be considered in this Place, to make Your Majesty more powerful and strong, some Orders be observed, that are used in fortified Countries, the Government whereof imports as much as the States themselves, I mean in Times of Doubt or Suspect, which are these ; Imprimis: That none wear Arms or Weapons at all, either in City or Country, but such as your Majesty may think fit to priviledge, and they to be enrolled ; 2nd That as many High-ways as conveniently may be done, be made passable through those Cities and Towns fortified, to constrain the Passengers to travel through them; 3rd That the Soldiers of Fortresses be sometimes chosen of another Nation, if subject to the same Prince ; but howsoever, not to be born in the same Province, or within forty or fifty Miles of the For- tress, and not to have Friends or Correspondency near it; T'2 PART IV.

And that the Gates of each City be shut all Night, and keys kept by the Mayor or Governor ; 5th Also Inn-keepers to deliver the Names of all unknown Passengers that lodge in their Houses ; and if they stay suspiciously at any Time to present them to the Governor. Whereby dangerous Persons seeing these strict Courses, will be more wary of their Actions, and thereby mis- chievous Attempts will be prevented. All which being referred to your Majesty's wise Consideration, it is meet for me withal to give you some Satisfaction of the Charge and Time to per- form what is purposed, that you may not be discouraged in the Difficulty of the one, or Prolongation of the Other ; both which Doubts are resolved in one and the same Reason, in respect that in England each chief Town commonly hath a ruinated Castle, well seated for strength, whose Foundation and stones remaining, may be both quickly repaired for this Use, and with little Charge and Industry made strong enough, I hope, for this Purpose, within the Space of one Year ; by adding withal Bul- warks and Rampiers for the Ordnance, according to the Rules of Fortification.

The Ordnance for these Forts may be of Iron, not to disfurnish your Majesty's Navy, or be at a greater Charge than is needful. To maintain Yearly the Fort, I make account an ordinary Pay, three thousand Men will be sufficient, and will require Forty thousand Pound charge per Annum, or thereabouts, being an Expense that inferior Princes undergo, for their necessary Safety.

All which prevention added to the invincible Sea-force your Majesty hath already and will have, will make you the most powerful and obeyed King of the World. Which I could like- wise confirm by many Examples, but I omit them for brevity, and not to confuse your Majesty with too much matter.

Your Majesty may find by the Scope of this Discourse, the Means shewed in general to bridle your Subjects, that may be either discontent or obstinate. And therefore have first thought fit, for better prevention thereof to make known to your Majesty the Purpose of a general Oath your Subjects may take for sure avoiding of all Rubs, that may hinder the Conclusion of these Businesses.

It is further meant, That no Subject, upon Pain of High Trea- son, may refuse the same Oath, containing only Matter of Al- legiance, and not scruples in Points of Conscience, that may give Pretence not to be denied. How necessary the dangerous supremacy of Parliaments' Usurpation is to be prevented, the Example of Lewis the Eleventh, King of France, doth manifest, who found the like Opposition as your Majesty doth, and by his Wisdom suppressed it. And, to the Purpose here intended, which is not to put down altogether Parliaments and their Authority, being in many Cases very necessary and fit, but to abridge them so far, as they seek to derogate from your Majesty's regal Authority, and Advancement of your Greatness.

There is another Means also more certain than this to bring to pass the Oath more easily, as also your Profit, and what else pretended ; which here I omit for brevity, requiring a long Discourse by itself, and have set it down in particular Instruc- tions to inform your Majesty.

Wherein I should observe both some reasonable Content to the People, as also consider the great Expenses that Princes have now-a-days, more than in Times past, to maintain their Greatness, and safety of their Subjects, who, if they have not Wit or Will to consider their own Interest so much indifferently, your Majesty's Wisdom must repair their Defects, and force them to it by compulsion, but I hope there shall be no such cause, in Points so reasonable to increase your Majesty's Revenue, wherein I set down divers Means for your gracious self to make choice of either All or Part at your Pleasure, and to put it in execution by such Degrees and Cautions, as your great Wisdom shall think fit in a Business of this Nature.

The first Means or Course intended to increase your Majesty's Revenues or Profits withal is of greatest Conse- quence, and I call it a Decimation, being so termed in Italy, where in some Parts it is in Use, importing the Tenth of all Subjects' Estates, to be paid as a yearly Rent to their Prince, and as well monied men in Towns, as Landed men in the Coun- tries, their Value and Estates esteemed justly as it is to the true Value, though with Reason ; and this paid yearly in money.

Which Course applied in England for your Majesty's Service, may serve instead of Subsidies, Fifteens, and such like, which in this Case are fit to be released, for the Subject's Benefit and Content, in recompense of the said Decima, which will yield your Majesty more in certainty, than they do casually by Five hundred thousand Pounds per annum at the least.

So as if your Majesty's Lands be already but sixty thousand Pounds per Ann. And this is the rather to be done, and the present Course changed, because it hath been a Custom used merely to cousen the King. Item, Whereas most Princes do receive the Benefit of Salt in their own Hands, as a Matter of great Profit, because they receive it at the lowest Price possible, and rent it at double gain yearly, the same Course used by your Majesty, were worth at least One hundred and fifty thousand Pounds per Annum.

It is likewise in other Parts that all Weights and Measures of the Land, either in private Houses, Shops, or publick Markets, should be viewed to be just, and sealed once a Year, paying to the Prince for it, which in England, applied to your Majesty, with Order to pay sixpence for the Sealing of each said Weight or Measure, would yield near Sixty thousand Pounds per Annum. Item, Whereas the Inns and Victualling houses in England are more chargeable to the Travellers, than in other Countries, it were good for your Majesty to limit them to certain Ordinaries and raise besides a large Imposition, as is used in Tuscany, and other Parts ; that is, a Prohibiting all Inns and "Victualling-houses, but such as shall pay it ; and to impose upon the Chief Inns and Taverns, to pay ten Pounds a year to your Majesty, and the worst five Pounds per Annum, and all Ale-houses twenty Shillings per Annum, more or less, as they are in Custom.

Of all Sorts there are so many in England, that this Impost may well yield One hundred thousand pounds per Annum to your Majesty. Item, In Tuscany, and other Parts, there is a Gabella of all Cattel, or Flesh, and Horses sold in Markets, paying three or four per Cent of what they are sold for, which by conjecture may be worth in England two hundred thousand Pounds per Annum, using the like Custom upon Fish, and other Victuals Bread excepted and for this Cause, Flesh and Fish and Victuals in the Markets, to be prised and sold by Weight, whereby the Subject saveth more in not being cousened, than the Imposition impair eth them.

As also seven per Cent upon all Dowries, or Marriage-monies. The like, if it be justly used in England, were worth at least One hundred thousand Pounds per Annum ; with many other Taxations upon Meal, and upon all Merchandises in all Towns, as well as Port Towns, which here I omit, with divers others, as not fit for England.

And in satisfaction of the Subject for these Taxes, your Majesty may be pleased to release them of Wardships, and to enjoy all their Estates at eighteen years old, and in the mean Time, their Profits to be preserved for their own Benefit. Item, Some of the former Taxations used in Ireland and in Scotland, as may easily be brought about by the first Example thereof used in England, may very well be made to increase your Revenue there, more than it is by Two hundred thousand Pounds per Annum.

Adding also Notaries, Attornies, and such like, to pay some Proportion Yearly towards it, for being allowed by Your Majesty to practise, and prohibit- ing else any to practise in such Places. Item, I know an assured course in your Majesty's Navy, which may save at least Forty thousand Pounds per Annum, which requiring a whole Discourse by itself, I omit ; only promise you to do it, when- soever you command. Item, Whereas your Majesty's Laws do command the strict keeping of Fasting-days, you may also prohibit on those Days to eat Eggs, Cheese and White-meats, but only such as are contented to pay Eighteen Pence a Year for the Liberty to eat them, and the better Sort Ten Shillings.

The Employment of this may be for the Defence of the Land, in maintaining the Navy, Garrisons, and such like, much after the Fashion of a Crusado in Spain, as your Majesty knoweth, being first begun there, under the Pretence to defend the Land against the Moors. And the same used in England, as aforesaid, may very well yield, one Year with another, One hundred thousand Pounds, without any disgust to any, because it is at every One's Choice to give it or no.

Two hundred thousand Pounds per Annum, by raising a certain Value upon their Lands, and some other Impositions ; which requiring a long Discourse by itself, I will omit it here, set- ting it down in my Instructions; It will save your Majesty at least One hundred thousand Pounds per Annum, to make it Pain of Death, and confiscation of Goods and Lands, for any of the. Officiers to cousen you, which now is much to be feared they do, or else they could not be so rich ; and herein to allow a fourth Part Benefit to them that shall find out the cousenage.

Here is not meant Officers of State, as the Lord Treasurer, etc. Suppose it to be but One Million and a half as assuredly your Majesty may make by these Courses set down, yet it is much more than I promised in my Letter, for your Majesty's Service.

Besides, some Sums of Money in present, by the Courses following: By the Prince's marriage, to make all the Earls in England Grandees of Spain, and Prin- cipi, with such like Priviledges, and to pay Twenty thousand Pounds apiece for it ; 2nd As also, if you make them Foeditaries of the Towns belonging to their Earldoms, if they will pay for it besides, as they do to the King of Spain in the Kingdom of Naples.

And so likewise Barons, to be made Earls and Peers, to pay Nineteen thousand Pounds apiece, I think might yield Five hundred thousand Pounds, and oblige them more sure to his Majesty ; 3rd To make choice of Two hundred of the rich- est Men in England in Estate, that be not Noblemen, and make them Titulate, as is used in Naples, and paying for it ; that is, a Duke Thirty thousand Pounds ; a Marquess Fifteen thousand Pounds: It is to be understood, that the antient Nobility of Barons made Earls, are to precede these as Peers, though these be made Marquesses or Dukes ; this may raise a Million of Pounds and more unto your Majesty.

To make Gen- tlemen of low Quality, and Francklins, and rich Farmers, Esquires, to precede them, would yield your Majesty also a great sum of money in present. Other Courses also, that may make present Money, I shall study for your Majesty's Service, and, as I find them out, acquaint you withal.

Lastly, To conclude all these Discourses, by the Application of this Course used for your Profit, That it is not only the Means to make you the richest King that ever England had, but also the Safety augmented thereby to be most secure, besides what was shewed in the first Part of this Discourse, I mean, by the Occasion of this Taxation, and raising of Monies, your Majesty shall have Cause and Means to imploy in all Places of the Land so many Officers and Ministers, to be obliged to you for their own Good and Interest, as nothing can be attempted against your Person, or royal State, over Land, but some of them shall in all probability, have Means to find it out, and hinder it.

Besides, this Course will detect many Discorders and Abuses in the publick Government, which were hard to be discovered by Men indifferent. To prohibit gorgeous and costly Apparel to be worn, but by Persons of good Quality, shall save the Gentry of the Kingdom much more Money, than they shall be taxed to pay unto your Majesty.

Such was Dudley's advice to King James after a few years study of political finance at the Court of Tuscany. Fortunately his suggestions did not suit the English Government. Since Dudley's arrival in Tuscany several changes had taken place. On the 6th of April , Dudley bought from Lo- dovico and Ferdinando, brothers, sons of Orazio, the son of Luigi Rucellai, for the sum of four thousand scudi, some house property in the parish of San Pancrazio in Florence, where he built for himself a palace.

On his death in this passed to his descendants of the Dudley and Paleotti families, was sold by them, and is now the property of the Bordoni family. The site is a wedge shaped piece of ground between the Via della Spada, and Via della Yigna Nuova, with the very narrow end facing Palazzo Strozzi. The illustration we give is from an old water-colour showing in its original position the loggia of the opposite Palazzo Corsi-Salviati now belonging to the Marchesa Arconati-Visconti born Peyrat , before the Via de' Tornabuoni was enlarged.

It was removed to the other end, of the front of that palace in the year The principal front, consisting of four stories in- cluding the ground floor which was let out for shops with ten windows to each story, looks on Via della Vigna Nuova, and measures about one hundred and thirty five feet in length. The truncated part of the wedge facing the Via degli Strozzi, and on which appear the Rucellai arms and a little tabernacle, is only about six feet wide.

It has been said that Bar- tolommeo Ammannati was the architect, but dates render that doubtful. It is more probable that Dudley himself designed or directed the building of the palace. In Lord Herbert's relation there is an evident mistake as to dates.

He speaks of Dudley as having the title of Earl and Duke of Northumberland given to him by the Emperor. Lord Herbert also mentions, not very respectfully, K the hand- some Mrs Sudel, whom he Dudley carried away with him out of England, and was there in Florence taken for his wife. XV of the Appendix to this Memoir, there is an account of the purchase and sale, and a description of the palace and its suc- cessive owners.

He was much occupied at Pisa and Leghorn, in the building of ships, and in new inventions for their more speedy locomotion. He had enemies also, probably some Italian ship-builders or merchants who, jealous of his success, tried to throw discredit on his vessels, one of which had been named St.

Cosimo after the Grand-Duke. We will give a free translation of a postscript to a letter written by Dudley to Cav. I am ready to assert in their presence that the new galley floats as well, and is 1 The pronoun ' they ' here is not explained, the persons referred to being evidently known to Cioli. Cosimo, but that if they want it to answer the helm, they should not over-weight it with more stones or sand, than they put in the other boats. I do not believe that they do this from ignorance, it being a common and well-known fact that too much weight puts a vessel too deep in water.

When a boat is once proved to float well, and answer the helm, it does not lose the qualities, therefore they must account for it in this case.

And further I reply, that even if it were true that it sinks so deep as to impede its speed, I certify his Eoyal Highness that in two days I would remedy the defect by a stratagem of my own, which has never been revealed. Of this you may be quite sure. As to what Madame says of the St. Cosimo, though it is my own building, I say with truth it is the very best work, and her ship-masters could not do better than imitate it.

Yet even that at- tracted such jealousy and hindrance, that it was kept on the stocks two years before it could be brought to perfection; so we must have patience also with this new one, and let the envy and ill-feeling work off a little, till people better recognize the quality of the ship.

I who know both one and the other, arid have seen them both tried, assure you that if the St. Co- simo is good, this one will never be bad. Cosimo has this advantage I watched over the building of it till the hull was perfectly finished, while for this I merely gave the design, and only inspected the work when it was ready for trial. I have also thought of a rt curiosity " in the matter of a new form of oars, which row with more force and yet facility.

I hope these will prove a great success. I have sent oars of the kind to be tried on a galleon at Leghorn and they write me word that they succeed very well.

Before returning to Florence I shall go down to Leg- horn and see the effect, and also inspect the Sassaja and Petacda as lately commanded by his Serene High- ness. I beg you also to thank his Serene Highness for the letter written by him in favor of my cause at Rome to Monsignor Torelli, Deputy Judge, who has given the sentence in my favor, as I desired, and which is of great importance to me. It seems that as the Petacda and Sassaja were ready to sail for Elba, twenty Englishmen from Dup- par's ships, 2 under a renegade Fleming named Rhys, 1 It does not seem that this cause at Rome had anything to do with the later one in the Curia Apostolica, which was in He had however no right to board the Duke of Tuscany's ships.

The Captain flew to the helm and put his men on guard, but the assailants threw several of them into the hold, and disabled others. Then cutting off three anchors and setting sail, they tried to escape with the ship, but in so doing they collided with the Sassaja and ran aground.

By this time the harbour, and the fortress of the port were aroused, soldiers and guards were despatched, and a general melee ensued, resulting in Rhys being captured with 47 of his men, who were thrown into the prison at Leghorn to await the Grand-Duke's orders.

In another letter dated from Leghorn May 20th , Dudley reports on the two new galley ships he has built at Leghorn, and of the success of his own new oars, which the comite crew and the galley slaves find a great improvement, as they are less fatiguing to use, and make more way; they also economise in the expense of tow or rope stroppi which in the course of a year mounts up to scudi.

Un pari, 5 rendez-vous. Un hiver en Australie. Dominé Par Le Capitaine. Sous la Douche Avec Deux Hommes: Black Night, Dark Desires: Soumis Aux Cambrioleurs Vol. Perversité Sur Mesure Vol. Anonymat et Perversions Vol.

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