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In hydrologic terms, 1. The degree to which a material or object containing minute openings or passages, when immersed in a liquid, will draw the surface of the liquid above the hydrostatic level. Unless otherwise defined, the liquid is generally assumed to be water.

The phenomenon by which water is held in interstices above the normal hydrostatic level, due to attraction between water molecules. In hydrologic terms, the soil area just above the water table where water can rise up slightly through the cohesive force of capillary action.

This layer ranges in depth from a couple of inches, to a few feet, and it depends on the pore sizes of the materials. The capillary fringe is also called the capillary zone. Waves caused by the initial wind stress on the water surface causes what are known as capillary waves. These have a wavelength of less than 1. Capillary waves are important in starting the process of energy transfer from the air to the water. Used interchangably with Capillary Fringe; the soil area just above the water table where water can rise up slightly through the cohesive force of capillary action.

A region of negative buoyancy below an existing level of free convection LFC where energy must be supplied to the parcel to maintain its ascent. This tends to inhibit the development of convection until some physical mechanism can lift a parcel to its LFC. The intensity of the cap is measured by its convective inhibition. The term capping inversion is sometimes used, but an inversion is not necessary for the conditions producing convective inhibition to exist.

Alternate term for Cap; a layer of relatively warm air aloft, usually several thousand feet above the ground, which suppresses or delays the development of thunderstorms. CO2; a colorless and odorless gas which is the fourth most abundant constituent of dry air.

A Catalina Eddy coastal eddy forms when upper level large-scale flow off Point Conception interacts with the complex topography of the Southern California coastline. As a result, a counter clockwise circulating low pressure area forms with its center in the vicinity of Catalina Island. This formation is accompanied by a southerly shift in coastal winds, a rapid increase in the depth of the marine layer, and a thickening of the coastal stratus.

Predominately these eddies occur between April and September with a peak in June. A typical Catalina eddy will allow coastal low clouds and fog to persist into the afternoon. A strong Catalina eddy may extend to feet and these clouds will move through the inland valleys and reach as far as Palmdale.

In hydrologic terms, an area having a common outlet for its surface runoff also see Drainage Area or Basin, Watershed.

A National Weather Service precipitation descriptor for a 80, 90, or percent chance of measurable precipitation 0. See Precipitation Probability PoP. Alert stage or caution stage are used instead of caution stage in some parts of the country. CIG - The height of the cloud base for the lowest broken or overcast cloud layer. A device using a laser or other light source to determine the height of a cloud base. An optical ceilometer uses triangulation to determine the height of a spot of light projected onto the base of the cloud; a laser ceilometer determines the height by measuring the time required for a pulse of light to be scattered back from the cloud base.

A typical thunderstorm consists of several cells. The term "cell" also is used to describe the radar echo returned by an individual shower or thunderstorm. Such usage, although common, is technically incorrect.

The standard scale used to measure temperature in most areas outside the United States. Generally speaking, the vertical axis of a tropical cyclone, usually defined by the location of minimum wind or minimum pressure. The cyclone center position can vary with altitude. In advisory products, refers to the center position at the surface. In solar-terrestrial terms, the passage of an Active Region or other feature across the longitude meridian that passes through the apparent center of the solar disk.

The average flow in cubic feet per second for any time period is the volume of flow in cfs-days. A National Weather Service precipitation descriptor for 30, 40, or 50 percent chance of measurable precipitation 0. When the precipitation is convective in nature, the term scattered is used. In hydrologic terms, also known as Watercourse; an open conduit either naturally or artificially created which periodically, or continuously contains moving water, or forms a connecting link between two bodies of water.

River, creek, run, branch, anabranch, and tributary are some of the terms used to describe natural channels. Natural channels may be single or braided. Canal and floodway are some of the terms used to describe artificial channels. In hydrologic terms, water, which at any instant, is flowing into the channel system form surface flow, subsurface flow, base flow, and rainfall that has directly fallen onto the channel. In hydrologic terms, an elongated opening in the ice cover caused by a water current.

In hydrologic terms, the process of determining progressively timing and shape of the flood wave at successive points along a river. In mountainous areas or in cities with tall buildings, air may be channeled through constricted passages producing high winds. Santa Ana winds and winds through passes from the cold Alaskan interior to the sea are examples of these winds. Channeled high winds are local in nature but can be extremely strong.

These winds generally occur in well-defined areas. In hydrologic terms, the modification of a natural river channel; may include deepening, widening, or straightening. A computer model used in air pollution investigations that simulates chemical and photochemical reactions of the pollutants during their transport and diffusion. This is a region-specific term used for Foehn Winds in the lee of the Rocky Mountains in the United States; Foehn Winds are warm, dry winds that occur in the lee of high mountain ranges.

It is a fairly common wintertime phenomena in the mountainous west and in parts of Alaska. These winds develop in well-defined areas and can be quite strong. A foehn cloud formation appearing as a bank of altostratus clouds east of the Rocky Mountains, heralding the approach of a chinook.

It forms in the rising portion of standing waves on the lee side of the mountains. An observer underneath or east of the cloud sees an arch of clear air between the clouds leading edge and the mountains below. The cloud appears to converge with the mountains to the north and south due to a perspective effect. CFCs - Manufactured substances used as coolants and computer-chip cleaners. When these products break down they destroy stratospheric ozone, creating the Antarctic Ozone Hole in the Southern Hemisphere spring Northern Hemisphere autumn.

While no longer in use, their long lifetime will lead to a very slow removal from the atmosphere. In solar-terrestrial terms, the layer of the solar atmosphere above the photosphere and beneath the transition region and the corona.

In solar-terrestrial terms, flares that are just Chromospheric Events without Centimetric Bursts or Ionospheric Effects. SID Class C flare. The flow, or movement, of a fluid e. A cirriform cloud characterized by thin, white patches, each of which is composed of very small granules or ripples.

These clouds are of high altitude 20,, ft or , m. A cloud of a class characterized by a composition of ice crystals and often by the production of halo phenomena and appearing as a whitish and usually somewhat fibrous veil, often covering the whole sky and sometimes so thin as to be hardly discernible. CI High-level clouds 16, feet or higher , composed of ice crystals and appearing in the form of white, delicate filaments or white or mostly white patches or narrow bands.

Cirrus clouds typically have a fibrous or hairlike appearance, and often are semi-transparent. Thunderstorm anvils are a form of cirrus cloud, but most cirrus clouds are not associated with thunderstorms. The time of morning at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon. At this time, there is enough light for objects to be distiguishable and that outdoor activities can commence. The time at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon in the evening.

At this time objects are distinguishable but there is no longer enough light to perform any outdoor activities. CEM - A message issued by the National Weather Service in coordination with Federal, state or local government to warn the general public of a non-weather related time-critical emergency which threatens life or property, e.

Geographic areas designated by the Clean Air Act where only a small amount or increment of air quality deterioration is permissible. CAT - In aviation, sudden severe turbulence occurring in cloudless regions that causes violent buffeting of aircraft. A thin coating of ice on terrestrial objects, caused by rain that freezes on impact. The ice is relatively transparent, as opposed to rime ice, because of large drop size, rapid accretion of liquid water, or slow dissipation of latent heat of fusion.

With respect to severe thunderstorms, a local region of clearing skies or reduced cloud cover, indicating an intrusion of drier air; often seen as a bright area with higher cloud bases on the west or southwest side of a wall cloud. A clear slot is believed to be a visual indication of a rear flank downdraft. As used in connection with reimbursable National Weather Service NWS fire weather services, a public fire service or wildlands management agency, Federal or non-Federal, which requires and uses NWS fire and forestry meteorological services.

The composite or generally prevailing weather conditions of a region, throughout the year, averaged over a series of years.

A non-random change in climate that is measured over several decades or longer. The change may be due to natural or human-induced causes. It is issued by the fifteenth of the month. Mathematical model for quantitatively describing, simulating, and analyzing the interactions between the atmosphere and underlying surface e. A climate outlook issued by the CPC gives probabilities that conditions, averaged over a specified period, will be below-normal, normal, or above-normal.

The Center serves the public by assessing and forecasting the impacts of short-term climate variability, emphasizing enhanced risks of weather-related extreme events, for use in mitigating losses and maximizing economic gains. The system consisting of the atmosphere gases , hydrosphere water , lithosphere solid rocky part of the Earth , and biosphere living that determine the Earths climate.

An outlook based upon climatological statistics for a region, abbreviated as CL on seasonal outlook maps. CL indicates that the climate outlook has an equal chance of being above normal, normal, or below normal.

The science that deals with the phenomena of climates or climatic conditions. An instrument that measures angles of inclination; used to measure cloud ceiling heights. A basin draining to some depression or pond within its area, from which water is lost only by evaporation or percolation. A basin without a surface outlet for precipitation falling precipitation.

Flooding that occurs on lakes with either no outlet or a relatively small one. Seasonal increases in rainfall cause the lake level to rise faster than it can drain.

The water may stay at flood stage for weeks, months, or years. A low pressure area with a distinct center of cyclonic circulation which can be completely encircled by one or more isobars or height contour lines. The term usually is used to distinguish a low pressure area aloft from a low-pressure trough. Closed lows aloft typically are partially or completely detached from the main westerly current, and thus move relatively slowly see Cutoff Low.

CLD A visible aggregate of minute water droplets or ice particles in the atmosphere above the Earths surface. Same as Ceiling; the height of the cloud base for the lowest broken or overcast cloud layer.

Small particles in the air on which water vapor condenses and forms cloud droplets. An array of clouds whose bases are at approximately the same level. Rows of cumulus or cumulus-type clouds aligned parallel to the low-level flow.

Cloud streets sometimes can be seen from the ground, but are seen best on satellite photographs. Radar echoes that interfere with observation of desired signals on the radar display. The process by which water droplets in a cloud collide and come together to form raindrops. Flooding which occurs when water is driven onto land from an adjacent body of water.

This generally occurs when there are significant storms, such as tropical and extratropical cyclones. Includes the area from a line approximating the mean high water along the mainland or island as far out as nautical miles including the bays, harbors and sounds.

The marine forecast for areas, including bays, harbors, and sounds, from a line approximating the mean high water mark average height of high water over a year period along the mainland or near shore islands extending out to as much as NM. Minor flooding is possible i. Flooding that will pose a serious threat to life and property is occurring, imminent or highly likely.

Flooding with significant impacts is possible. This flooding may impact the immediate oceanfront, gulfs, bays, back bays, sounds, and tidal portions of river mouths and inland tidal waterways. Lakeshore flooding impacts the immediate lakefront, bays, and the interfaces of lakes and connecting waterways, such as rivers. A radar that utilizes both signal phase and amplitude to determine target characteristics. Downslope flow pulsations that occur at more or less regular intervals as cold air builds up on a peak or plateau, reaches a critical mass, and then cascades down the slopes.

A shallow cold air mass which is carried up the slope of a mountain barrier, but with insufficient strength to surmount the barrier. The cold air, trapped upwind of the barrier alters the effective terrain configuration of the barrier to larger-scale approaching flows. The phenomenon in which a low-level cold air mass is trapped topographically. Often, this cold air is entrenched on the east side of mountainous terrain.

Cold Air Damming often implies that the trapped cold air mass is influencing the dynamics of the overlying air mass, e. Effects on the weather may include cold temperatures, freezing precipitation, and extensive cloud cover. A funnel cloud or rarely a small, relatively weak tornado that can develop from a small shower or thunderstorm when the air aloft is unusually cold hence the name. They are much less violent than other types of tornadoes. A zone separating two air masses, of which the cooler, denser mass is advancing and replacing the warmer.

A frontal zone formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front and, being colder than the air ahead of the warm front, slides under the warm front, lifting it aloft.

Compare with warm occlusion. A region of relatively cold air, represented on a weather map analysis as a relative minimum in temperature surrounded by closed isotherms. Cold pools aloft represent regions of relatively low stability, while surface-based cold pools are regions of relatively stable air. A generally circular ring of cloud that may be observed on rare occasions surrounding the upper part of a wall cloud.

This term sometimes is used incorrectly as a synonym for wall cloud. The fraction of droplets approaching a surface that actually deposit on that surface. A low pressure storm system that forms in winter in southeastern Colorado or northeastern New Mexico and tracks northeastward across the central plains of the U. In hydrologic terms, ice consisting of columnar shaped grain. The ordinary black ice is usually columnar-grained.

Generally referred to as SEAS. Used to describe the combination or interaction of wind waves and swells in which the separate components are not distinguished. This includes the case when swell is negligible or is not considered in describing sea state. When used, SEAS should be considered as being the same as the significant wave height.

A synoptic scale cloud pattern with a characteristic comma-like shape, often seen on satellite photographs associated with large and intense low-pressure systems. A thunderstorm radar echo which has a comma-like shape. It often appears during latter stages in the life cycle of a bow echo. Typically used to refer to mountainous terrain. In general usage, it may also refer to coastal regions and heterogeneous landscapes.

An average that is calculated according to specific criteria. For example, one might want a composite for the rainfall at a given location for all years where the temperature was much above average. A stream discharge hydrograph which includes base flow, or one which corresponds to a net rain storm of duration longer than one unit period. In solar-terrestrial terms, the indicative of solar flare importance.

These are common in the most intense hurricanes. They usually mark the end the period of intensification. These hurricanes then maintain quasi-constant intensity or weaken. When the inner eye is completely dissipated, more intensification may occur. In general, the physical process by which a vapor becomes a liquid or solid; the opposite of evaporation, although on the molecular scale, both processes are always occurring. A funnel-shaped cloud associated with rotation and consisting of condensed water droplets as opposed to smoke, dust, debris, etc.

An atmospheric condition that exists when the environmental lapse rate is less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate but greater than the moist adiabatic lapse rate. Flow of heat in response to a temperature gradient within an object or between objects that are in physical contact. In hydrologic terms, the depression, roughly conical in shape, produced in a water table, or other piezometric surface, by the extraction of water from a well at a given rate.

The volume of the cone will vary with the rate of withdrawal of water. Also called the Cone of Influence. Same as Cone of Depression; in hydrologic terms, the depression, roughly conical in shape, produced in a water table, or other piezometric surface, by the extraction of water from a well at a given rate.

In hydrologic terms, ground water held under an aquiclude or an aquifuge, called artesian if the pressure is positive. A pattern of wind flow in which air flows inward toward an axis oriented parallel to the general direction of flow. It is the opposite of difluence. Confluence is not the same as convergence. Winds often accelerate as they enter a confluent zone, resulting in speed divergence which offsets the apparent converging effect of the confluent flow. The act that assigned the responsibility of river and floor forecasting for the benefit of the general welfare of the Nation's people and economy to the Weather Bureau, and subsequently the National Weather Service.

With regards to wildfires, pattern of plume dispersion in a neutral atmosphere, in which the plume attains the form of a cone with its vertex at the top of the stack. Two points on the earths surface, at opposite ends of a geomagnetic field line. In hydrologic terms, storage of water for later release for usual purposes such as municipal water supply, power, or irrigation in contrast with storage capacity used for flood control.

In hydrologic terms, ice cover formed by the packing and freezing together of floes, brash ice and other forms of floating ice. Alternate term for Isobaric Chart a weather map representing conditions on a surface of equal atmospheric pressure. For example, a mb chart will display conditions at the level of the atmosphere at which the atmospheric pressure is mb. In hydrologic terms, the volume of water in a reservoir.

Unless otherwise indicated reservoir content is computed on the basis of a level pool and does not include bank storage. A dry air mass originating over a large land area. Contrast with tropical air mass.

The zone bordering a continent and extending to a depth, usually around FM, from which there is a steep descent toward greater depth. In solar-terrestrial terms, general term for solar noise lasting for hours and sometimes days. In hydrologic terms, small monuments securely embedded in the surface of the dam. Any movement of the monument indicates a movement in the dam itself. Movements in the dam are detected by comparing control points location to location of fixed monuments located off the dam using accurate survey techniques.

Generally, transport of heat and moisture by the movement of a fluid. In meteorology, the term is used specifically to describe vertical transport of heat and moisture in the atmosphere, especially by updrafts and downdrafts in an unstable atmosphere.

The terms "convection" and "thunderstorms" often are used interchangeably, although thunderstorms are only one form of convection. However, convection is not always made visible by clouds. Convection which occurs without cloud formation is called dry convection, while the visible convection processes referred to above are forms of moist convection. The unstable boundary layer that forms at the surface and grows upward through the day as the ground is heated by the sun and convective currents transfer heat upwards into the atmosphere.

The vertically developed family of clouds are cumulus and cumulonimbus. The height of their bases range from as low as 1, feet to a bit more than 10, feet. Clouds with extensive vertical development are positive indications of unstable air.

Strong upward currents in vertically developed clouds can carry high concentrations of supercooled water to high levels where temperatures are quite cold. Upper portions of these clouds may be composed of water and ice.

CCL - The level in the atmosphere to which an air parcel, if heated from below, will rise dry adiabatically, without becoming colder than its environment just before the parcel becomes saturated.

CIN or B- - A numerical measure of the strength of "capping," typically used to assess thunderstorm potential. Specifically, it represents the cumulative effect of atmospheric layers the are warmer than the parcel moving vertically along the adiabat. Low level parcel ascent is often inhibited by such stable layers near the surface. If natural processes fail to destabilize the lower levels, an input of energy from forced lift a front, an upper level shortwave, etc.

Since CIN is proportional to the amount of kinetic energy that a parcel loses to buoyancy while it is colder than the surrounding environment, it contributes to the downward momentum. The terms approaching, slight risk, moderate risk, and high risk are used to describe severe thunderstorm potential. Local versions sometimes are prepared by local NWS offices.

Convection that covers the sky with clouds, thereby cutting off the sunshine that produces convection. The approximate temperature that the air near the ground must warm to in order for surface-based convection to develop, based on analysis of a sounding.

Calculation of the convective temperature involves many assumptions, such that thunderstorms sometimes develop well before or well after the convective temperature is reached or may not develop at all.

However, in some cases the convective temperature is a useful parameter for forecasting the onset of convection. A contraction of a vector field; the opposite of divergence. Convergence in a horizontal wind field indicates that more air is entering a given area than is leaving at that level.

To compensate for the resulting "excess," vertical motion may result: Upward forcing from low-level convergence increases the potential for thunderstorm development when other factors, such as instability, are favorable. In hydrologic terms, the loss of water from a conduit due to leakage, seepage, evaporation, or evapo-transpiration. CDD - A form of Degree Day used to estimate energy requirements for air conditioning or refrigeration. An individual or institution who takes precipitation and temperature observations-and in some cases other observations such as river stage, soil temperature, and evaporation-at or near their home, or place of business.

Many observers transmit their reports by touch-tone telephone to an NWS computer, and nearly all observers mail monthly reports to the National Climatic Data Center to be archived and published. By international agreement, the local time at the prime meridian, which passes through Greenwich, England.

It is also known a "Z time" or "Zulu Time". Core punching is not a recommended procedure for storm spotting. A fictitious force used to account for the apparent deflection of a body in motion with respect to the earth, as seen by an observer on the earth.

The deflection to the right in the Northern Hemisphere is caused by the rotation of the earth. A small-scale convergence effect that can be quite severe. It occurs around steep islands and headlands. In solar-terrestrial terms, a white or colored circle or set of concentric circles of light of small radius seen around a luminous body, especially around the sun or moon.

The color varies from blue inside to red outside and the phenomenon is attributed to diffraction of light by thin clouds or mist distinguished from halo. In solar-terrestrial terms, an extended region of the corona, exceptionally low in density and associated with unipolar photospheric regions.

CRN In solar-terrestrial terms, material condensing in the corona and appearing to rain down into the chromosphere as observed at the solar limb above strong sunspots. In solar-terrestrial terms, a general term for short-time-scale changes in the corona, but principally used to describe outward-moving plasma clouds. An output of the mesocyclone detection algorithm indicating a 3-dimensional shear region i.

The group of counties for which a National Weather Service Forecast Office is responsible for issuing warnings. The group of counties for which a National Weather Service Forecast Office is responsible for issuing warnings and weather forecasts.

Same as Coupled Model; in the context of climate modeling this usually refers to a numerical model which simulates both atmospheric and oceanic motions and temperatures and which takes into account the effects of each component on the other. In the context of climate modeling this usually refers to a numerical model which simulates both atmospheric and oceanic motions and temperatures and which takes into account the effects of each component on the other.

A small stream of water which serves as the natural drainage course for a drainage basin of nominal, or small size. The term is a relative one as to size, some creeks in the humid section would be called rivers if they occurred in the arid portion.

The alternating bands of light and dark rays and shadows seen at the earths surface when the sun shines through clouds. Highest point in a wave. In hydrologic terms, 1 The highest stage or level of a flood wave as it passes a point.

A gage used to obtain a record of flood crests at sites where recording gages are installed. In hydrologic terms, the thickness or width of a dam at the level of the crest top of the dam. The term "thickness" is used for gravity and arch dams and "width" for other types of dams.

In hydrologic terms, The depth of water flowing in an open channel or conduit, partially filled, corresponding to one of the recognized critical velocities. In hydrologic terms, a condition of flow where the mean velocity is at one of the critical values; ordinarily at Belangers critical depth and velocity.

Another important usage is in reference to the Reynolds critical velocities which define the point at which the flow changes from streamline or nonturbulent to turbulent flow. CRP - In hydrologic terms, the Probability that the actual precipitation during a rainfall event has exceeded or will exceed the flash flood guidance value. In solar-terrestrial terms, a sudden deviation in the sunlit geomagnetic field H component; see geomagnetic elements associated with large solar flare X-ray emission.

In , Palmer developed the index to assess short-term crop water conditions and needs across major crop-producing regions. This index is a useful tool in forecasting short-term drought conditions. A thermally driven wind that blows during daytime across the axis of a valley toward the heated sidewall. A fire where flames travel from tree to tree at the level of the trees crown or top.

Movement of a fire from the understory into the crown of a forest canopy. The science of the physical aspects of snow, ice, hail, and sleet and other forms of water produced by temperatures below Zero degrees Celsius.

CFP - In hydrologic terms, a unit expressing rates of discharge. One cubic foot per second is equal to the discharge through a rectangular cross section, 1 foot wide by 1 foot deep, flowing at an average velocity of 1 foot per second. It is also approximately 7. Descriptive of all clouds with vertical development in the form of rising mounds, domes, or towers. A thunderstorm anvil with visual characteristics resembling cumulus-type clouds rather than the more typical fibrous appearance associated with cirrus.

A cumuliform anvil arises from rapid spreading of a thunderstorm updraft, and thus implies a very strong updraft. See anvil rollover, knuckles, mushroom. CU - detached clouds, generally dense and with sharp outlines, showing vertical development in the form of domes, mounds, or towers.

Clouds which develop vertically due to unstable air. Characterized by their cauliflower-like or tower-like appearance of moderately large size. A large, towering cumulus cloud with great vertical development, usually with a cauliflower-like appearance, but lacking the characteristic anvil of a cumulonimbus. A horizontal movement of water. Currents may be classified as tidal and nontidal. Tidal currents are caused by gravitational interactions between the sun, moon, and earth and are a part of the same general movement of the sea that is manifested in the vertical rise and fall, called TIDE.

Tidal currents are periodic with a net velocity of zero over the tidal cycle. Nontidal currents include the permanent currents in the general circulatory systems of the sea as well as temporary currents arising from more pronounced meteorological variability.

In hydrologic terms, device used to measure the water velocity or current in a river. In hydrologic terms, a drain constructed at the upper end of the area to be drained, to intercept surface or ground water flowing toward the protected area from higher ground, and carry it away from the area.

Also called an Intercepting Drain. An impervious construction or material which reduces seepage or prevents it. A closed upper-level low which has become completely displaced cut off from basic westerly current, and moves independently of that current. Cutoff lows may remain nearly stationary for days, or on occasion may move westward opposite to the prevailing flow aloft i. However, not all closed lows are completely removed from the influence of the basic westerlies.

Therefore, the recommended usage of the terms is to reserve the use of "cutoff low" only to those closed lows which clearly are detached completely from the westerlies. A thunderstorm that undergoes cycles of intensification and weakening pulses while maintaining its individuality.

Cyclic supercells are capable of producing multiple tornadoes i. CYC - A large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of low atmospheric pressure, counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Circulation or rotation which is in the same sense as the Earths rotation, i. Nearly all mesocyclones and strong or violent tornadoes exhibit cyclonic rotation, but some smaller vortices, such as gustnadoes, occasionally rotate anticyclonically clockwise.

Compare with anticyclonic rotation. In solar-terrestrial terms, a daytime layer of the earth's ionosphere approximately 50 to 90 km in altitude. In hydrologic terms, it is the hydrologic Data Network Analysis Software. Data Collection Platform In hydrologic terms, an electronic device that connects to a river or rainfall gage that records data from the gage and at pre-determined times transmits that data through a satellite to a remote computer.

As the name indicates, this climatological product is issued daily by each National Weather Service office. Most of the climatological data in this report are presented in a tabular form; however, some narrative statements may also be used in the product. The report is organized so that similar items are grouped together i. In hydrologic terms, the maximum mean daily discharge occuring in a stream during a given flood event. In hydrologic terms, any artificial barrier which impounds or diverts water.

The dam is generally hydrologically significant if it is: Or has an impounding capacity of 50 acre-feet or more and is at least six feet above the natural bed of the stream. In hydrologic terms, catastrophic event characterized by the sudden, rapid, and uncontrolled release of impounded water. In solar-terrestrial terms, dark gaseous ejections visible in H-alpha. A faint, negatively charged channel that travels more or less directly and continuously from cloud to ground.

Same as Civil Dawn; the time of morning at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon. In hydrologic terms, the volume in a reservoir below the lowest controllable level. Occurring over a year period, such as an oscillation whose period is roughly 10 years "Pacific Decadal Oscillation". The latitude that the sun is directly over at a given time. In hydrologic terms, water that percolates downward through the soil beyond the reach of plant roots.

In hydrologic terms, infiltration which reaches the water table. In hydrologic terms, a well whose pumping head is too great to permit use of a suction pump. A decrease in the central pressure of a surface low pressure system. The storm is intensifying.

Deformation is a primary factor in frontogenesis evolution of fronts and frontolysis decay of fronts. In hydrologic terms, a general term for ice which has been squeezed together and forced upwards and downwards in places. Subdivisions are rated ice, ridge ice, hummocked ice, and other similar deformations. In hydrologic terms, the geologic process by means of which various parts of the surface of the earth are worn down and carried away and their general level lowered, by the action of wind and water.

A measure that gauges the amount of heating or cooling needed for a building using 65 degrees as a baseline. Electrical, natural gas, power, and heating, and air conditioning industries utilize heating and cooling degree information to calculate their needs. For more specific definitions and how to calculate degree days, see the definitions for Heating Degree Days and Cooling Degree Days. In hydrologic terms, an alluvial deposit, often in the shape of the Greek letter "delta", which is formed where a stream drops its debris load on entering a body of quieter water.

Delta Ts often are computed operationally over the layer between pressure levels of mb and mb, in order to evaluate the amount of instability in mid-levels of the atmosphere. Generally, values greater than about 18 indicate sufficient instability for severe thunderstorm development.

In hydrologic terms, thin branch-like growth of ice on the water surface. In hydrologic terms, the form of the drainage pattern of a stream and it's tributaries when it follows a treelike shape, with the main trunk, branches, and twigs corresponding to the main stream, tributaries, and subtributaries, respectively, of the stream. An advisory for widespread or localized fog reducing visibilities to regionally or locally defined limitations not to exceed 1 nautical mile.

An advisory for widespread or localized smoke reducing visibilities to regionally or locally defined limitations not to exceed 1 nautical mile. In hydrologic terms, a flow of water maintained by gravity through a large body of water, such as a reservoir or lake, and retaining its unmixed identity because of a difference in density.

In hydrologic terms, the ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the volume which a given quantity of snow would occupy if it were reduced to water, to the volume of the snow. When a snow sampler is used, it is the ratio expressed as percentage of the scale reading on the sampler to the length of the snow core or sample.

In hydrologic terms, the part of the hydrograph extending from the point of termination of the Recession Curve to the subsequent rise or alternation of inflow due to additional water becomming available for stream flow. A region of low atmospheric pressure that is usually accompanied by low clouds and precipitation. The term is also sometimes used as a reference to a Tropical Depression.

In hydrologic terms, the volume of water contained in natural depressions in the land surface, such as puddles. In hydrologic terms, the total runoff from a drainage basin, divided by its area. For convenience in comparing runoff with precipitation, the term is usually expressed in inches of depth during a given period of time over the drainage area or acre-feet per square mile.

Pronounced day-RAY-cho , a widespread and usually fast-moving windstorm associated with convection. Derechos include any family of downburst clusters produced by an extratropical MCS, and can produce damaging straight-line winds over areas hundreds of miles long and more than miles across.

A tendency toward more prominent desert conditions in a region. In hydrologic terms, the hypothetical flood used in the sizing of the dam and the associated structures to prevent dam failure by overtopping, especially for the spillway and outlet works. They have no spillway gates or valves and do not store water on a long-term basis. Typical detention times for storm flows are on the order of 24 to 72 hours, but may be as long as 5 to 10 days.

Basins designed for detention of mud and rock debris are periodically excavated to maintain their storage capacity. In hydrologic terms, the volume of water, other than depression storage, existing on the land surface as flowing water which has not yet reached the channel.

In hydrologic terms, 1 the heavier mineral debris moved by natural watercourses, usually in bed-load form. Moisture that has condensed on objects near the ground, whose temperatures have fallen below the dewpoint temperature. DWPT - A measure of atmospheric moisture.

It is the temperature to which air must be cooled in order to reach saturation assuming air pressure and moisture content are constant. A higher dew point indicates more moisture present in the air. It is sometimes referred to as Dew Point Temperature, and sometimes written as one word Dewpoint. The difference in degrees between the air temperature and the dew point. A narrow zone mesoscale feature of extremely sharp moisture gradient and little temperature gradient.

It separates moist air from dry air. Severe weather can be associated with this front. It is also known as a "dryline" or "dry front". A process which occurs with the addition or loss of heat. The opposite of adiabatic.

Meteorological examples include air parcels warming due to the absorption of infrared radiation or release of latent heat. Similar to Santa Ana winds in southern California. These winds occur below canyons in the East Bay hills Diablo range and in extreme cases can exceed 60 mph. They develop due to high pressure over Nevada and lower pressure along the central California coast.

A diagnostic model produces a wind field over an area by interpolating from actual wind observations. A fall of non-branched snow crystals are branched ice crystals in the form of needles, columns, or plates. Cloud motion that appears to differ relative to other nearby cloud elements, e. Cloud rotation is one example of differential motion, but not all differential motion indicates rotation. For example, horizontal wind shear along a gust front may result in differential cloud motion without the presence of rotation.

In solar-terrestrial terms, the change in solar rotation rate with latitude. Low latitudes rotate at a faster angular rate approx. In hydrologic terms, poorly defined ice edge limiting an area of dispersed ice; usually on the leeward side of an area of floating ice. It is the opposite of confluence. Difluence in an upper level wind field is considered a favorable condition for severe thunderstorm development if other parameters are also favorable.

But difluence is not the same as divergence. In a difluent flow, winds normally decelerate as they move through the region of difluence, resulting in speed convergence which offsets the apparent diverging effect of the difluent flow.

In hydrologic terms, the damage done to property, structures, goods, etc. A close approach of a tropical cyclone to a particular location. For locations on the left-hand side of a tropical cyclone's track looking in the direction of motion , a direct hit occurs when the cyclone passes to within a distance equal to the cyclone's radius of maximum wind. For locations on the right-hand side of the track, a direct hit occurs when the cyclone passes to within a distance equal to twice the radius of maximum wind.

Compare indirect hit, strike. In hydrologic terms, the runoff entering stream channels promptly after rainfall or snowmelt. Superposed on base runoff, it forms the bulk of the hydrograph of a flood. The component of solar radiation received by the earth's surface only from the direction of the sun's disk i. The component of wind shear which is due to a change in wind direction with height, e.

A veering wind with height in the lower part of the atmosphere is a type of directional shear often considered important for tornado development. In solar-terrestrial terms, the sudden timescale of minutes to hours disappearance of a solar filament prominence. In hydrologic terms, the rate at which water passes a given point. Discharge is often used interchangeably with streamflow. In hydrologic terms, a curve that expresses the relation between the discharge of a stream or open conduit at a given location and the stage or elevation of the liquid surface at or near that location.

A table showing the relation between two mutually dependant quantities or variable over a given range of magnitude. A table showing the relation between the gage height and the discharge of a stream or conduit at a given gaging station.

Also called a Rating Table. Equipment that measures and records the size distribution of raindrops. The visible surface of the sun or any heavenly body projected against the sky. In hydrologic terms, a unit hydrograph of direct runoff modified to show the proportions of the volume of runoff that occur during successive equal units of time. Daily; related to actions which are completed in the course of a calendar day, and which typically recur every calendar day e.

Variations in meteorological parameters such as temperature and relative humidity over the course of a day which result from the rotation of the Earth about its axis and the resultant change in incoming and outgoing radiation. The temperature difference between the minimum at night low and the maximum during the day high. The expansion or spreading out of a vector field; usually said of horizontal winds.

It is the opposite of convergence. Divergence at upper levels of the atmosphere enhances upward motion, and hence the potential for thunderstorm development if other factors also are favorable. In hydrologic terms, the taking of water from a stream or other body of water into a canal, pipe, or other conduit. In hydrologic terms, the high ground that forms the boundary of a watershed. A divide is also called a ridge. In the blocked flow region upwind of a mountain barrier, the streamline that separates the blocked flow region near the ground from the streamlines above which go over the barrier.

The height above ground of the dividing streamline, as measured far upwind of a mountain barrier. Unit used to measure the abundance of ozone in the atmosphere. One Dobson unit is the equivalent of 2. The regions on either side of the equator where air pressure is low and winds are light. In air pollution modeling, the geographical area over which a simulation is performed. In hydrologic terms, the quantity, or quantity per capita, of water consumed in a municipality or district for domestic uses or purposes during a given period, generally one day.

It is usually taken to include all uses included within the term Municipal Use of Water and quantity wasted, lost, or otherwise unaccounted for. In hydrologic terms, the use of water primarily for household purposes, the watering of livestock, the irrigation of gardens, lawns, shrubbery, etc. Radar that can measure radial velocity, the instantaneous component of motion parallel to the radar beam i.

A thermally driven wind directed down a valley's axis, usually occurring during nighttime; part of the along-valley wind system. A strong downdraft current of air from a cumulonimbus cloud, often associated with intense thunderstorms. Downdrafts may produce damaging winds at the surface. DWNDFT - A small-scale column of air that rapidly sinks toward the ground, usually accompanied by precipitation as in a shower or thunderstorm.

A downburst is the result of a strong downdraft. A thermally driven wind directed down a mountain slope and usually occurring at night; part of the along-slope wind system. In the same direction as a stream or other flow, or toward the direction in which the flow is moving. In hydrologic terms, the slope or face of the dam away from the reservoir water. This slope requires some kind of protection e. A deflection of air downward relative to an object that causes the deflection.

The component of radiation directed toward the earth's surface from the sun or the atmosphere, opposite of upwelling radiation. In hydrologic terms, an area having a common outlet for its surface runoff also see Watershed and Catchment Area. In hydrologic terms, a part of the surface of the earth that is occupied by a drainage system, which consists of a surface stream or a body of impounded surface water together with all tributary surface streams and bodies of impounded surface water.

In hydrologic terms, the relative density of natural drainage channels in a given area. It is usually expressed in terms of miles of natural drainage or stream channel per square mile of area, and obtained by dividing the total length of stream channels in the area in miles by the area in square miles.

In hydrologic terms, the boundary line, along a topographic ridge or along a subsurface formation, separating two adjacent drainage basins. A valley or basin from which air drains continuously during nighttime rather than becoming trapped or pooled. In hydrologic terms, a vertical well or borehole, usually downstream of impervious cores, grout curtains or cutoffs, designed to collect and direct seepage through or under a dam to reduce uplift pressure under or within a dam.

A line of such wells forms a "drainage curtain". In hydrologic terms, the lowering of the surface elevation of a body of water, the water surface of a well, the water table, or the piezometric surface adjacent to the well, resulting from the withdrawl of water therefrom. In hydrologic terms, the scooping, or suction of underwater material from a harbor, or waterway. Dredging is one form of channel modification.

It is often too expensive to be practical because the dredged material must be disposed of somewhere and the stream will usually fill back up with sediment in a few years. Dredging is usually undertaken only on large rivers to maintain a navigation channel. Drifting snow may occur during or after a snowfall. Drifting snow is usually associated with blowing snow. Precipitation consisting of numerous minute droplets of water less than 0. The distribution of rain drops or cloud droplets of specified sizes.

Drought is a deficiency of moisture that results in adverse impacts on people, animals, or vegetation over a sizeable area. At the end of each month, CPC issues a long-term seasonal drought assessment. These assessments review national drought conditions and indicate potential impacts for various economic sectors, such as agriculture and forestry.

In hydrologic terms, computed value which is related to some of the cumulative effects of a prolonged and abnormal moisture deficiency. An index of hydrological drought corresponding to levels below the mean in streams, lakes, and reservoirs. A line of constant potential temperature on a thermodynamic chart.

The rate at which the temperature of a parcel of dry air decreases as the parcel is lifted in the atmosphere. The dry adiabatic lapse rate abbreviated DALR is 5. In hydrologic terms, a crack visible at the surface but not going right through the ice cover, and therefore it is dry. In hydrologic terms, a dry floodproofed building is sealed against floodwaters. All areas below the flood protection level are made watertight. Walls are coated with waterproofing compounds or plastic sheeting.

Openings like doors windows, sewer lines and vents are closed, whether permanently, with removable shields, or with sandbags. The flood protection level should be no more than 2 or 3 feet above the top of the foundation because the buildings walls and floors cannot withstand the pressure of deeper water.

A boundary separating moist and dry air masses, and an important factor in severe weather frequency in the Great Plains. It typically lies north-south across the central and southern high Plains states during the spring and early summer, where it separates moist air from the Gulf of Mexico to the east and dry desert air from the southwestern states to the west. The dry line typically advances eastward during the afternoon and retreats westward at night.

However, a strong storm system can sweep the dry line eastward into the Mississippi Valley, or even further east, regardless of the time of day. A typical dry line passage results in a sharp drop in humidity hence the name , clearing skies, and a wind shift from south or southeasterly to west or southwesterly. Blowing dust and rising temperatures also may follow, especially if the dry line passes during the daytime.

These changes occur in reverse order when the dry line retreats westward. Severe and sometimes tornadic thunderstorms often develop along a dry line or in the moist air just to the east of it, especially when it begins moving eastward. Philadelphia è il luogo di provenienza di una nuova ed oscura entità chiamata Omegalord. Ci sono dischi destinati a restare impressi in modo indelebile nel libro personale di ciascuno di noi,un po come delle piccole pietre preziose che vanno custodite gelosamente in uno scrigno.

Più lo si ascolta e più ci si rende conto di trovarsi davanti ad un vero piccolo capolavoro. Sin dalle prime note della opening track, che da anche il titolo al disco, l'atmosfera che si respira è quella abrasiva ma allo stesso tempo melodica tipica del garage rock di stampo sixties… l'indimenticabile sound prodotto da band storiche e seminali quali 13th Floor Elevator, Flaming Groovies, Seeds Il disco prosegue su questa ottima strada, lanciato a forte velocità, lasciandosi dietro una scia di suoni graffianti e polverosi, fino al primo arresto… ma solo in senso metaforico… Con "Too Late", infatti, gli On Trial tirano fuori il loro lato più intimista, dimostrano di essere maestri anche in emozione, e ci deliziano con uno splendido episodo più soft, ma senza cadere nel banale e nel melenso Queste sono le vere "rock ballads" Una citazione particolare merita la bellissima "So Close", sicuramente uno dei momenti più commoventi del disco..

Il disco chiude in bellezza con tre pezzi in bilico tra psychedelia e space rock. Gran finale in tutti i sensi. Dopo averci regalato lavori meravigliosi come "Head entrance", "New day rising" e "Blinded by the sun", gli On Trial tornano da una momentanea pausa e lo fanno deliziandoci con "Forever". Cambio di etichetta per la band danese, passata con la connazionale Bad Afro.

Un trust che porta ottimi frutti dato che il nuovo lavoro è l'ennesima prova di grandezza dei cinque. Quaranta minuti di garage rock psichedelico colorato ed emozionante, nella migliore tradizione targata Love e 13th Floor Elevators. Ma attenzione, c'è qualcosa di diverso rispetto alle precedenti uscite che tanto ci hanno fatto innamorare di loro.

Se prima erano melodie immediate e a presa rapida a caratterizzare il sound della band, ora prevale una maggiore cura in fase di songwriting. Gli On Trial sono cresciuti ulteriormente, si concentrano sulla forma canzone, abbandonano anche le lunghe cavalcate psichedeliche per iniettare le loro dosi lisergiche in brani dalla breve durata.

Tutto concentrato in un pugno di canzoni dal sublime fascino, frutto di una composizione lenta e matura, meno immediata e più intensa. Lo si nota a partire dall'operner nonché singolo "Mountain", song che mette i brividi per quanto è 'vissuta' e ben suonata. È il lavoro delle chitarre di Bjarni e Henrik ad essere protagonista, ben sostenuto nelle ritmiche da Nik basso e Anders batteria. Poi c'è la solita, bellissima voce di Bo a farci sognare mondi fantastici. Gli On Trial sono questi, dolci e soavi "Speaking of witch", "Black seagull" e "Blood river" rimarranno per sempre nei nostri cuori , psichedelici quanto basta "Every new direction" e "Morning sun in Burg Herzberg" ci proiettano in universi lontani , aggressivi quando è il momento giusto ascoltare i fuzz assassini di "Kill city lights" e "Believe" per credere.

Ma forse è la dimensione notturna di "Too late too loud" ad essere la vetta del disco, un gioiello che sembra scritto da Leonard Cohen sciolto nell'acido. Insomma, se nel mondo di oggi c'è sempre qualcosa da dimostrare, gli On Trial lo fanno con classe immensa e grande eleganza.

Perché sono tra le poche band ad avere cucita addosso la stoffa dei fuoriclasse. E gli On Trial da questo punto di vista non sono certo i primi venuti: Questo album dal vivo contiene dodici tracce registrate nella suggestiva cornice di Christiania, comune di Copenhagen dove le parole amore, rispetto ed anarchia non sembrano ancora aver perduto senso.

Forse nessun altro contesto poteva far trovare a proprio agio gli On Trial. I brani presentati vivono una nuova, intensa interpretazione, splendendo per brillantezza e capacità esecutiva. La scaletta infatti è principalmente imperniata sulla produzione recente della band. Vi alzate, scrollate la tendina e dato uno sguardo fuori. Siete indecisi come al solito se buttarvi nel traffico, farvi una corsetta tonificante o leggervi qualcosa. Non ditelo a nessuno, ma avete ascoltato un disco degli On Trial.

La 12thRecords è senza dubbio un'etichetta valida e promettente in campo doom e heavy psych. Nella sua scuderia trovano posto band di grande valore, tra le quali spicca il nome degli Operator Generator. Anche se il loro debutto risale ormai al , vale la pena recensire questo cd di tre pezzi perché le capacità del quartetto di San Josè sono ampie ed in prospettiva ricche di potenzialità.

Scorgendo il booklet tra l'altro la grafica è stata affidata alle meraviglie psichedeliche della Malleus , balza subito all'occhio la presenza in line up di Thomas Choi, chitarrista noto per la sua militanza in una band ormai storica del panorama stoner come i grandiosi Sleep. Ed è proprio all'ex gruppo di Matt Pike che gli Operator Generator guardano con maggior devozione: L'inizio di "Arctic quest" è folgorante: Le vocals strazianti e dilatate di Mitchell French aggiungono il tocco finale, come evidente nella successiva "Infinite loop", sei minuti di godimento assoluto, divisi tra feedback stordenti, fumose atmosfere ipnotiche e ossessive ripetizioni che richiamano in pieno gli Sleep, anche per l'impostazione "stonata" data ai testi.

Dopo questa sbornia colossale, "Equinox planetarium" ci concede la mazzata finale grazie ad un concentrato di heavy space rock lisergico e tirato, degna conclusione di un quarto d'ora di pura follia sonica, che ha come suo unico difetto il fatto di trascorrere troppo in fretta… Sono ormai due anni che aspettiamo con impazienza un full lenght in piena regola, speriamo che questo sia l'anno giusto…sarà la volta buona?

Me lo auguro proprio… Alessandro Zoppo. Peccato che in due-tre brani manchi la stoccata vincente, per il resto gli Orange Goblin sono sempre una garanzia.

Già da sola la benedizione e collaborazione di Steve Austin basterebbe per avere un parere positivo degli Orange Man Theory. Gianni voce , Gabbo chitarra , Merendina batteria e Remo basso sono quattro pazzi.

Suonano bene, compongono pezzi dal gran tiro ma fondamentalmente sono dei pazzi. Il che è un bene. Ma la confusione non è portatrice di male, anzi. È quella sfera magica attraverso la quale si raggiunge la Verità, la piena Verità. Il cuore di un suono sanguinario e coinvolgente.

Questi sono gli Orange Man Theory, cui è lecito e doveroso aggiungere quel tocco personale, soprattutto nella costruzione armonica, che li rende distruttivi, noisy e al tempo stesso visionari. Eterogeneità che viene fuori soprattutto in altri due episodi: Insieme a Last Minute To Jaffna e Laghetto quanto di meglio il panorama più folle ed estremo possa offrire al momento in Italia. Quello che la stampa di settore ha definito "post hardcore" o "post metal" virgolette necessarie vive inesorabilmente una fase di flessione.

Come quasi tutti i generi etichettati nati e fioriti attorno ad alcuni gruppi cardine in questo caso Tool, Neurosis, Isis, Pelican, Today Is The Day, Cult of Luna, per fare qualche nome , la riproposizione di stilemi e metodologie - di suono e composizione - si regge su equilibri abbastanza fragili.

Non sfuggono alle gabbie di queste classificazioni gli Orbe , giunti con il nuovo "Albedo" la seconda fase alchemica al traguardo del secondo disco dopo "Opera al Nero". Un concept album sul mito e le dinamiche che esso costruisce nella psiche e nella tradizione umana. E di registrarle bene, in totale autonomia la produzione è stata curata da Fabio Recupero e Alex Franzini.

Le cinque tracce strumentali che compongono l'album sono ricche di riferimenti inevitabili, tuttavia hanno una loro carica espressiva che denota una certa maturazione.

Più compositiva che di stile. L'impatto e la furia espressiva dell'iniziale "Lilith" la prima donna sfociano nell'approccio ambient di "Xbalanque" gli eroi gemelli , dove emerge prepotente la perizia di Andrea e Juri alle chitarre l'alternarsi di riff e aperture ariose e soprattutto la capacità delle ritmiche Fabio al basso, Andrea alla batteria di costruire un tessuto intricato e jazzy davvero notevole.

Una solennità di passo che abbraccia anche la successiva "Amaterasu" il sole , progressione in slow motion dall'incedere drammatico che ha il solo difetto dell'autocompiacimento. Arricchendo ulteriormente il proprio bagaglio di influenze, gli Orbe possono ambire ad entrare in quella cerchia ristretta di band leggi Omega Massif, Kayo Dot, Across Tundras, Consciousness Removal Project, Russian Circles che hanno ancora qualcosa da dire nel sempre più asfittico panorama "post".

Da segnalare che il disco è stato pubblicato con licenza Creative Commons ed è scaricabile gratuitamente dal sito ufficiale del gruppo. Un motivo in più per apprezzare.

Come riconoscere quindi il valore di un gruppo in questo sovraffollamento di post? Sempre rimanendo nei canoni ormai standard del genere in questo demo si sentono capacità di imbastardire gli standard stessi con idee melodiche e strutturali che suonano naturali ma fresche. Nota negativa ormai di rito per quasi ogni autoproduzione italiana: Nella terra dove la professionalità si fa pagare caro ci si arrangia e il risultato sono produzioni casalinghe che pur suonando bene penalizzano non poco la band.

È ancora possibile oggigiorno fare una rilettura dei Black Sabbath senza cadere nello scontato? La risposta è si, se a farlo sono gli Orchid , quartetto di San Francisco in giro dal Dopo due anni dalla loro formazione hanno firmato il contratto discografico con la Church Within ma è soltanto nel che la band ha esordito con l'ep "Through the Devil's Doorway", gustoso antipasto di quello che ascoltiamo attualmente.

Si dicono essere fan di Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, Pentagram, ma è chiaro fin da subito che l'influenza primaria sia stata la leggendaria band di Birmingham. Ora è finalmente giunto il momento del full lenght dopo ben due anni di gestazione, questo affascinante "Capricorn".

Ascoltando il brano d'apertura "Eyes Behind the Wall" non ci si rende nemmeno conto di essere nel O meglio, sembra di ascoltare la band di Iommi catapultata ai giorni nostri. Come se il tempo si fosse fermato. La title track poi pare uscita dalle sessions di "Master of Reality". Molto intensa la voce di Theo Mindell che tra l'altro cura anche l'artwork dell'album: A proposito di riff, spettacolare quello di "Down Into the Earth" mentre "Cosmonaut of Three" si traveste della narcolessia sleepiana chiudendoci in un vortice sonoro che disorienta e seduce.

Ma la ciliegina sulla torta è rappresentata dalla sognante e tenebrosa "Albatross", posta in chiusura, praticamente una sorta di "Planet Caravan" riattualizzata e rivitalizzata per l'occasione. E qui sono brividi che scorrono lungo la schiena. Un disco quindi consigliato ai nostalgici di queste sonorità, a chi è ancora in cerca di emozioni e a coloro che amano semplicemente il Rock, quello con la R maiuscola.

Tutto il resto è superfluo. Da Asschafenburg arrivano gli Orcus Chylde , band che conferma l'ottimo momento che sta vivendo la Germania in ambito retro rock. Basti pensare agli ormai celebrati Kadavar o ai meno noti ma altrettanto interessanti Heat. Gli Orcus Chylde propongono un sound piuttosto vario, di non semplicissima lettura, che passa dal doom dal sapore antico di matrice sabbatthiana al rock più attuale ed occulto affine a band quali Uncle Acid and The Deadbeats.

Il tutto è elaborato passando attraverso lidi psichedelici e ricerche sonore che si ricollegano alla gloriosa tradizione prog, accennando persino a toni gothic rock e ad inevitabili sapori heavy blues. Ancora a voler riconfermare quanto i Led Zeppelin abbiano svolto un'infinita influenza sui gruppi più disparati e differenti. L'album è composto da 8 tracce per una durata complessiva di 48 minuti. Gli Orcus Chylde si muovono nei meandri della belle epoque svedese Norskken, Witchcraft, Graveyard, Abramis Brama , specie nell'approccio bluesy e Settantiano.

La loro proposta è prog psych e dark doom dalle cadenze blues. Le atmosfere oscure ed ancestrali rendono il risultato ancora più avvincente.

Se vi sono piaciuti gli Horisont e "Legend" dei Witchcraft vi ha fatto storcere il naso, ecco il disco che aspettavate. Nel , tra i lavori di maggiore interesse nel genere al pari dell'esordio dei Royal Thunder, con cui — non a caso — gli Orcus Chylde condividono l'appeal occult prog.

Anche se con leggero ritardo ci giunge ora il secondo demo dei pugliesi Orient Express, band in giro dal e molto presente in varie manifestazioni a livello nazionale come l'I-Tim Tour. Questo demo è in realtà un ep di quattro pezzi più una traccia video che è proprio la performance dei tre alla tappa milanese del festival itinerante organizzato da RockTv.

Un buon trampolino di lancio dunque, favorito dalla qualità dei quattro brani presenti sul dischetto. La passione per il rock degli anni '70 risulta evidente dall'ascolto, ma Vito basso e voce , Paolo batteria e Gigi chitarra non si pongono alcun limite. Piuttosto sono alcuni vizi di forma la registrazione da migliorare per far uscir fuori il loro reale talento a comprometterne la perfetta riuscita.

In ogni caso si tratta di un prodotto di pregevole fattura, molto promettente per una band motivata e compatta. Gli Orient Express sono infatti capaci di emozionare e scuotere.

Mentre la traccia video, "Faith", è una ballata notturna dai tratti cupi e romantici che non disdegna toni jazzati e inflessioni improvvisate che lasciano spazio al fluire libero delle note. Buona band gli Orient Express, li aspettiamo fiduciosi al prossimo lavoro. Siamo sicuri che non ci deluderanno. Esordio che ci consegna una band brava dal punto di visto tecnico compositivo, ancora acerba sul piano della personalità. Perché Vito basso, voce , GG chitarre , Pabro batteria e Blondy synth puntano forte sulla fusione di stili: Il gruppo pugliese ci propone questo ep composto da tre brani ed un video.

Ottima e convincente è anche la versione acustica del brano, sognante ed eterea. L'albero del Bene e del Male. In molti hanno speso le loro peregrinazioni intellettuali attorno a questo concetto.

E non troppo distante è il bellissimo film di Terrence Malick che si interrogava sull'esistenza di un moto vitale tra le generazioni di una famiglia nella stessa maniera in cui le radici nutrono le foglie, sane o malate che siano. Ed è proprio con una voce fuori campo di stampo cinematografico che inizia il secondo disco degli Orne , gruppo nato dalle ceneri dei Reverend Bizarre, e andato ben oltre qualunque più rosea aspettativa.

Gli elementi di ossessività e distorta lentezza del bizzarro reverendo hanno ceduto il passo ad un tocco magico ed elegante, sospeso tra strumenti acustici come sassofono, flauto ed organo e il ritmo ossianico dei riff di chitarra.

Le canzoni hanno il compito di descrivere un universo finito e a sé stante, degno di reggersi da solo ma in continua contaminazione con il concept del disco. Oltre sette minuti ognuna, si snodano attraverso un intro dolce e delicato per deflagrare nel corpo centrale del pezzo e lasciare una scia lucente nel finale.

Si ascoltano leggeri ricami di piano Rhodes in cui s'innestano solos di chitarra gentili e mai sopra le righe. La parte ritmica segue le trame e sostiene il tutto con una leggera prevalenza di carattere della batteria. E sulle stesse coordinate si apre il pezzo più accessibile del disco, "Beloved Dead", che, a dispetto del titolo, sprizza chiara essenza pinkfloidiana con l'aiuto della sola voce e della chitarra acustica. Il finale è tanto inaspettato, quanto straordinario. La sorpresa risiede nel ritmo sincopato e flower power di "I Was Made Upon Waters", omaggio fin troppo esplicito alla stagione delle grandi band progressive, soprattutto italiane.

Tutto finisce come era iniziato, con la voce salmodiante che si fa appendice della conclusiva "Sephira", unica composizione a donare una distorsione di stampo stoner all'intero disco. Leggermente al di sotto dello splendido album d'esordio, "The Tree of Life" si farà ricordare nel tempo per le sue qualità di scrittura ed arrangiamento che andranno oltre il tempo, lo spazio e la nostra stessa vita; d'altra parte Amor Vincit Omnia e questo ci basta per farcene una ragione.

Di recente il mondo del doom è sempre più popolato da nuove entità oscure e misteriose che riportano in auge un sound che molti ritengono datato e privo di reali sbocchi innovativi. Tra i tanti gruppi ad emergere da tale sottobosco cupo spiccano gli Orodruin con un nome preso in prestito dal "Signore degli anelli"… , band proveniente da Rochester, New York, e giunta al debutto sotto l'egida della sempre più attiva PsycheDOOMelic Records. Va subito detto che il dischetto in questione è un po' difficile da digerire tutto d'un fiato, la complessità delle trame ritmiche ed armoniche dei quattro corre spesso il rischio di annoiare, ma ascolto dopo ascolto vengono fuori spunti apprezzabili e degni di nota.

Sono soprattutto gli inserti di tastiere a convincere basta ascoltare l'organo lugubre dell'iniziale "The welcoming" e l'intermezzo atmosferico della conclusiva title track , donano infatti un tocco gotico a composizioni che si abbeverano alla fonte del doom, riprendendo l'influenza di nomi classici come Saint Vitus, Solitude Aeternus, Cathedral e Candlemass.

Chitarre granitiche e compatte, vocals malinconiche ma pur sempre melodiche ed intelligenti intuizioni in fase di songwriting la paralizzante liquidità di "Peasants lament" o l'andamento epico e commovente di "War cry" sono gli ingredienti di una ricetta plumbea e depressiva, perfetta colonna sonora di un incessante giorno di pioggia.

Tracce come "Melancholia" e la splendida "Unspeakable truth", tutta giocata sull'alternanza di riff soffocanti, saliscendi vocali e intrecci percussivi, dimostrano l'abilità di una band validissima, ancora acerba ma già proiettata verso un futuro intrigante e pieno di rosee prospettive. Questo nuovo album degli Orquesta del Desierto è di gran lunga migliore rispetto al precedente. Suono più raffinato, e composizioni molto più mature. Se vi è piaciuto l'esordio non esitate a fare vostro questo secondo capolavoro.

Detto questo, la recensione parrebbe chiusa, ma entrando nel merito di "Dos" ci accorgiamo canzone dopo canzone delle qualità che riesce ad esprimere. Certo, questo disco non è per tutti. Esce un po' fuori dai canoni tipici dello stoner rock. Essenzialmente sono presenti una vasta gamma di strumenti acustici e anche le sonorità si rifanno ad un folk rock con tratti di ritmiche latine ed elementi di psichedelia californiana.

Cinque dei brani presenti in quest'album erano stati recensiti alcuni mesi fa nel promo che ci era stato inviato. Uno di questi era proprio l'opener che già dalle prime note mostra una completezza di suoni di gran lunga superiore. La voce di Pete Stahl ricamata su un tappeto ritmico fatto anche di percussioni è assolutamente deliziosa.

Atmosfere rilassate e avvolgenti, chitarre acustiche, piano e trombe per due perle di rara bellezza. L'evidente maestria dei musicisti che vi suonano cola ad agni nota. L'anima rock non viene mai dimenticata, sebbene le influenze siano infinite. Le note di questo brano sono come la bianca sabbia del Joshua Tree californiano, la slide guitar come 'Santana", il caldo vento del sud California.

Questo disco è in assoluto una delle cose più belle che abbia sentito quest'anno. Il Rancho de la Luna è già diventato un simbolo della scena desertica. La "desert scene" ha sicuramente il grosso pregio di raccogliere un concentrato di artisti di indubbie qualità tecniche che spesso in maniera del tutto amichevole e trasversale crea i presupposti per la nascita di progetti artistici di rilievo.

Una comunità musicale che ci sta regalando un'alchimia di suoni e stili sempre distinguibili in continua evoluzione e votata alla sperimentazione. Gli Orquesta del Desierto non sono gli ultimi arrivati in questo importante fiume linfatico che sta attraversando il genere rock. Già autori di un ottimo debutto nel si accingono a riproporsi nei prossimi mesi autunnali con un sequel che si preannuncia di pregevole fattura.

Impegnati negli scorsi mesi, nella fase di registrazione nei pressi del mitico Rancho De La Luna, sito all'interno del Parco Nazionale di Joshua Tree in California, sotto la super visione di Steve Dandy Brown, nelle veci di produttore e strumentista, attualmente gli Orquesta del Desierto stanno ultimando la fase di mixaggio del nuovo album ancora senza titolo.

A completare la formazione Country Mark Engel alla chitarra, l'ennesima per un sound acustico veramente avvolgente , Bill Barrett alla tromba e Tim Jones al piano. Cinque i brani ricevuti in anteprima con l'opener "Summer" che ha tutte le carte in regola per essere un potenziale singolo dalle melodie dolci e coretti sospesi con un finale in forte crescendo acido.

Il quarto brano "Someday" è forse quello che ha suscitato più dubbi. Di difficile interpretazione rimane comunque un gradino più indietro rispetto alle altre songs, per vena compositiva ed originalità. Il brano rimane uno dei miei preferiti con una conclusione a base di piano e chitarra acustica degna di nota.

Il deserto è sempre più con noi! La pesantezza, nella sua forma di macigno che occupa il tempo e la mente. Una presenza continua, oppressiva, che detta la strada al delirio. Una forza che in molti modi rapisce. Questo racchiude il debut degli Orthodox, band spagnola che si candida a grande sorpresa del In questo "Grand Poder" in italiano "grande potere" è sintetizzato quel che vuol dire creare musica pesante oggi, pesante fisicamente grazie ai suoni intensi; pesante "a pelle" grazie ai riff devastanti e implacabili; pesante mentalmente grazie alle atmosfere che rapiscono e non lasciano scampo tra un lento progredire di chitarra e un ipnotico solo di batteria.

In questo disco è racchiusa abilmente ogni tipo di influenza di stampo heavy e in particolare doom. L'inizio della prima lunghissima traccia fà saltare alla mente subito gli Sleep di Jerusalem con il suo evolversi su un riff spezzagambe. Poi i nomi che vengono in mente sono High on Fire per le graffiate di stampo thrash e contemporaneamente i Melvins per il ruolo e l'andamento trascinante della batteria.

Senza dimenticare il drone, che riaffiora in più di un passaggio dove le melodie e i suoni vengono lasciati marcire nell'oscuro. Il tutto con qualche abile tocco personale e invenzione che danno freschezza alle composizioni. Il secondo pezzo, "Arrodillate ante la Madera y la piedra", unisce l'ipnotismo di un giro di basso ripetuto ed accolto dalla chitarra ad un assolo di batteria fuori controllo.

Il risultato è un viaggio nella follia di un comandamento ripetuto fino al suo nonsenso. Un piccolo intermezzo melodico, che riporta alla realtà, ed ecco che ancora una volta la potenza di un movimento sonoro ci riporta al pensiero pesante nella traccia che chiude il disco.

Tutto questo in 9 minuti di potenza nella forma di energia. Potenza che invece si manifesta nei restanti 7 minuti sotto forma di statica psichedelia e pesanti colpi sonori.

In conclusione questo Grand Poder è un disco in cui le influenze più varie si fondono con la creatività e la personalità di questi 3 spagnoli. Mantenendo l'ortodossia verso i canoni della musica hevy contemporanea gli Orthodox riescono a muoversi abilmente nel genere dando una spinta dall'interno al doom, consolidando e dando peso alle sperimentazioni estreme in un lavoro ben calibrato e ben composto.

Il risultato di "Corvi Nel Cielo Spento" che arriva dopo due demo non è propriamente eccelso, ma sicuramente ascoltabile e piacevole, soprattutto in virtù delle capacità dei singoli componenti, che puntano al sodo con una certa dose di feeling, fattore tipico di musicisti meritevoli. In "Immaginazione" e "Diva" la musica del destino si fonde con dura wave rock soprattutto i Diaframma , ed oltre ad accelerazioni metalliche spiccano atmosfere in bianco e nero che incutono brividi sottocutanei.

Secolo" sono i brani più sintomatici: Gli Ossimoro intraprendono una strada personale e dal cammino non proprio semplice: Il nome di David Hennessy non suonerà nuovo a tutti gli appassionati di doom e psichedelia heavy. Qui Dave torna alle proprie origini e imbracciando la chitarra in compagnia di Jeremy Arn Ramirez basso e Matthew Clark batteria dà vita al nuovo album della band madre, gli Ostinato.

Sembra che negli ultimi tempi questo genere che è poi una miscela di più generi sia molto in voga fra i giovani musicisti, probabilmente affascinati dal suonare un sound ipnotico ed allo stesso tempo pesante. Assieme agli Obiat, questi The Other Side of The Sky rappresentano la miglior sorpresa post doom rock degli ultimi anni: Stavolta si tratta degli Ouroboros, band di formazione recente che sembra già avere le idee chiare su cosa proporre e come suonare.

I tre pezzi che compongono questa demo sorprendono infatti per la loro originalità e per la loro compattezza. Peccato per qualche sbavatura in fase di registrazione, ma per essere un primo passo le qualità ci sono tutte. Michele chitarra , Flavio voce , Giacomo basso e Riccardo batteria sono bravi nell'elaborare una forma ossessiva, 'trippy' e contorta di heavy grunge psichedelico. Come se Voivod, Kyuss, Melvins, Soundgarden e Tool viaggiassero insieme nel cosmo alla ricerca di una verità sonora assoluta.

Ritmiche impazzite quindi, riff slabbrati a dovere, vocals intense e sofferte. Tutto questo sono gli Ouroboros e l'iniziale "Interstellar gasoline" rappresenta in pieno il loro eclettismo. Mentre "The snake" è puro metal psichedelico, di ascendenza Tool: Un vortice nel quale ci si lascia andare con grande gioia… Davvero bravi gli Ouroboros, serpenti spaziali che volano molto molto alto. Allo stesso modo non è uno di quei dischi che solitamente trovate recensiti su Perkele.

Il progetto Outopsya Out of Psychical Activity è senza dubbio qualcosa di coraggioso e peculiare, vuoi per la complessità della proposta, vuoi per la formazione alla base: Iniziare ad elencare le influenze e le coordinate musicali potrebbe apparire pedante e superfluo, visto che le canzoni sono davvero eterogenee e spaziano tra i generi più disparati.

Pregiudizi sbagliati, perché il lavoro degli Outopsya va ben oltre la mera manifestazione di una grande capacità tecnica, che comunque sia è alla base di tutto. I brani, dalla lunghezza corposa, alternano momenti vibranti ed energici, ricordando ora Devin Townsend, Steve Vai, Dream Theater ma non c'è nulla di eccessivamente prolisso e barocco , ora i Cynic ed i Tool questi ultimi per alcuni riff, come nella seconda traccia.

Il disco merita un ascolto attento: La sommariamente descritta struttura del disco potrebbe nuocere al giudizio o essere uno sprone a continuare nel confronto con le sue coordinate stilistiche: Ma al di là di tutte le etichette che si cercano per descrivere le gesta del gruppo o forse è meglio dire progetto?

mature plage snapchat escort girl Si passa di palo in frasca con As I Know esempio di forma-canzone stoner finemente arrangiata, melodica e carica di branlette italienne vivastreet escort grenoble. Areas of circulation also can develop at either end of a bow echo, which sometimes can lead to tornado formation - especially in the left usually northern end, where the circulation exhibits cyclonic rotation. API - an index of moisture stored within a drainage basin before a storm. Flooding with significant impacts is possible. In hydrologic terms, a condition of flow where the mean velocity is at one of the critical values; ordinarily at Belangers critical depth and velocity. In hydrologic terms, characterized by successive division and rejoining of streamflow with accompanying islands. Radar echoes caused by birds, insects, and localized refractive index discontinuities.

As a rule, a true equivalent barotropic system can never be achieved in the real atmosphere. While some systems such as closed lows or cutoff lows may reach a state that is close to equivalent barotropic, the term barotropic system usually is used in a relative sense to describe systems that are really only close to being equivalent barotropic, i.

The state of a fluid in which surfaces of constant density or temperature are coincident with surfaces of constant pressure; it is the state of zero baroclinity. In hydrologic terms, any artificial obstruction placed in water to increase water level or divert it.

Usually the idea is to control peak flow for later release. A jet-like wind current that forms when a stably-stratified low-level airflow approaches a mountain barrier and turns to the left to blow parallel to the longitudinal axis of the barrier.

The serial number assigned to day rotation periods of solar and geophysical parameters. Rotation 1 in this sequence was assigned arbitrarily by Bartel to begin in January In hydrologic terms, the national standard for floodplain management is the base, or one percent chance flood.

This flood has at least one chance in of occurring in any given year. It is also called a year flood. Base Reflectivity is the default image.

In hydrologic terms, a computer which accepts radio signals from ALERT gaging sites, decodes the data, places the data in a database, and makes the data available to other users. In hydrologic terms, streamflow which results from precipitation that infiltrates into the soil and eventually moves through the soil to the stream channel.

This is also referred to as ground water flow, or dry-weather flow. An area having a common outlet for its surface runoff.

Also called a "Drainage Basin. The topographic dividing line around the perimeter of a basin, beyond which overland flow i. In hydrologic terms, the time it takes from the centroid of rainfall for the hydrograph to peak. In hydrologic terms, rainfall that adds to the residual moisture of the basin in order to help recharge the water deficit. The science of measuring depths of the oceans, lakes, seas, etc. The movement of beach materials by some combination of high waves, currents and tides, or wind.

The term reflects the danger involved in observing such an area visually, which must be done at close range in low visibility. The Beaufort wind scale is a system used to estimate and report wind speeds when no measuring apparatus is available. It was invented in the early 19th Century by Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort of the British Navy as a way to interpret winds from conditions at sea. Since that time, the scale has been modernized for effects on land. Beaufort Force 0 - Wind less than 1 kt, Calm, Sea surface smooth and mirror-like.

Smoke drift indicates wind direction, still wind vanes. Wind felt on face, leaves rustle, vanes begin to move. Beaufort Force 3 - Wind kt, Gentle Breeze, Large wavelets, crests begin to break, scattered whitecaps. Leaves and small twigs constantly moving, light flags extended. Dust, leaves, and loose paper lifted, small tree branches move. Beaufort Force 5 - Winds kt, Fresh Breeze, Moderate waves 4 -8 ft taking longer form, many whitecaps, some spray.

Small trees in leaf begin to sway. Beaufort Force 6 - Winds kt, Strong Breeze, Larger waves 8 ft, whitecaps common, more spray. Larger tree branches moving, whistling in wires. Beaufort Force 7 - Winds kt, Near Gale, Sea heaps up, waves 13 ft, white foam streaks off breakers. Whole trees moving, resistance felt walking against wind.

Beaufort Force 8 - Winds kt Gale, Moderately high 13 ft waves of greater length, edges of crests begin to break into spindrift, foam blown in streaks. Whole trees in motion, resistance felt walking against wind. Beaufort Force 9 - Winds kt, Strong Gale, High waves 20 ft , sea begins to roll, dense streaks of foam, spray may reduce visibility.

Slight structural damage occurs, slate blows off roofs. Beaufort Force 10 - Winds kt, Storm, Very high waves 20 ft with overhanging crests, sea white densely blown foam, heavy rolling, lowered visibility. Seldom experienced on land, trees broken or uprooted, "considerable structural damage".

Beaufort Force 11 - Winds kt, Violent Storm, Exceptionally high 30 ft waves, foam patches cover sea, visibility more reduced. It is attached to a supercells general updraft and is oriented roughly parallel to the pseudo-warm front, i.

As with any inflow band, cloud elements move toward the updraft, i. Its size and shape change as the strength of the inflow changes. See also inflow stinger. In hydrologic terms, sand, silt, gravel, or soil and rock detritus carried by a stream on or immediately above its bed. The particles of this material have a density or grain size such as to preclude movement far above or for a long distance out of contact with the stream bed under natural conditions of flow. In hydrologic terms, date on which ice forming a stable winter ice cover is first observed on the water surface.

In hydrologic terms, date of definite breaking, movement, or melting of ice cover or significant rise of water level. BM - In hydrologic terms, a permanent point whose known elevation is tied to a national network. These points are created to serve as a point of reference.

Benchmarks have generally been established by the USGS, but may have been established by other Federal or local agencies. Benchmarks can be found on USGS maps. The process by which ice crystals in a cloud grow at the expense of supercooled liquid water droplets. A piece of ice which has broken away from an iceberg, extending meters above the sea surface and square meters in area. Can also be the remains of a melting iceberg. A semi-permanent, subtropical area of high pressure in the North Atlantic Ocean off the East Coast of North America that migrates east and west with varying central pressure.

A subjectively-smoothed representation of a tropical cyclones location and intensity over its lifetime. The best track contains the cyclones latitude, longitude, maximum sustained surface winds, and minimum sea-level pressure at 6-hourly intervals. Best track positions and intensities, which are based on a post-storm assessment of all available data, may differ from values contained in storm advisories. They also generally will not reflect the erratic motion implied by connecting individual center fix positions.

Slang reference to patchy ice on roadways or other transportation surfaces that cannot easily be seen. In hydrologic terms, transparent ice formed in rivers and lakes. A hypothetical "body" that absorbs all of the electromagnetic radiation striking it - it does not reflect or transmit any of the incident radiation. A blackbody not only absorbs all wavelengths, but emits at all wavelengths with the maximum possible intensity for any given temperature.

Blackbody RadiationThe electromagnetic radiation emitted by an ideal blackbody adhering to the radiation laws; it is the theoretical maximum amount of electromagnetic radiation of all wavelengths that can be emitted by a body at a given temperature. BLZD - A blizzard means that the following conditions are expected to prevail for a period of 3 hours or longer: These conditions are expected to prevail for a minimum of 3 hours. Flow approaching a mountain barrier that is too weak or too stable to be carried over the barrier.

A descriptor used to amplify observed weather phenomena whenever the phenomena are raised to a height of 6 feet or more above the ground. Strong winds over dry ground, that has little or no vegetation, can lift particles of dust or sand into the air.

These airborne particles can reduce visibility, cause respiratory problems, and have an abrasive affect on machinery. Blowing snow is wind-driven snow that reduces surface visibility. Blowing snow can be falling snow or snow that has already accumulated but is picked up and blown by strong winds.

Blowing snow is usually accompanied by drifting snow. Issued when wind driven snow reduces surface visibility, possibly, hampering traveling. Blowing snow may be falling snow, or snow that has already accumulated but is picked up and blown by strong winds.

A regional downslope wind whose source is so cold that it is experienced as a cold wind, despite compression warming as it descends the lee slope of a mountain range. In hydrologic terms, an ice sheet in the form of a long border attached to the bank or shore. In general, a layer of air adjacent to a bounding surface. Specifically, the term most often refers to the planetary boundary layer, which is the layer within which the effects of friction are significant.

The effects of friction die out gradually with increasing height, so the "top" of this layer cannot be defined exactly. There is a thin layer immediately above the earths surface known as the surface boundary layer or simply the surface layer. This layer is only a portion of the planetary boundary layer, and represents the layer within which friction effects are more or less constant throughout as opposed to decreasing with height, as they do above it.

The surface boundary layer is roughly 10 meters thick from the surface up to 10 m above the ground , but again the exact depth is indeterminate. Like friction, the effects of insolation and radiational cooling are strongest within this layer. Also known as a vault. Radar signature within a thunderstorm characterized by a local minimum in radar reflectivity at low levels which extends upward into, and is surrounded by, higher reflectivities aloft.

This feature is associated with a strong updraft and is almost always found in the inflow region of a thunderstorm. It cannot be seen visually. A radar echo which is linear but bent outward in a bow shape. Damaging straight-line winds often occur near the "crest" or center of a bow echo.

Areas of circulation also can develop at either end of a bow echo, which sometimes can lead to tornado formation - especially in the left usually northern end, where the circulation exhibits cyclonic rotation. Bowen RatioFor any moist surface, the ratio of heat energy used for sensible heating conduction and convection to the heat energy used for latent heating evaporation of water or sublimation of snow.

The Bowen ratio ranges from about 0. It is named for Ira S. Bowen , an American astrophysicist. A computer model used to calculate air pollution concentrations. A box model is based on the assumption that pollutants are emitted into a box through which they are immediately and uniformly dispersed. The sides and bottom of the box are defined by the sidewalls and floor of the valley being studied. In hydrologic terms, characterized by successive division and rejoining of streamflow with accompanying islands.

A braided stream is composed of anabranches. In hydrologic terms, accumulation of floating ice made up of fragments not more than 2 meters across; the wreckage of other forms of ice.

Waves that break, displaying white water. Depends on wave steepness and bottom bathymetry. In hydrologic terms, the time when a river whose surface has been frozen from bank to bank for a significant portion of its length begins to change to an open water flow condition. Breakup is signaled by the breaking of the ice and often associated with ice jams and flooding. In hydrologic terms, date on which a body of water is first observed to be entirely clear of ice and remains clear thereafter.

In hydrologic terms, an ice jam that occurs as a result of the accumulation of broken ice pieces. In hydrologic terms, the period of disintegration of an ice cover. A distinct feature observed by a radar that denotes the freezing level of the atmosphere. The term originates from a horizontal band of enhanced reflectivity that can result when a radar antenna scans vertically through precipitation.

The freezing level in a cloud contains ice particles that are coated with liquid water. These particles reflect significantly more radiation appearing to the radar as large raindrops than the portions of the cloud above and below the freezing layer.

The bright band can affect the ability of the NEXRAD algorithms to produce accurate rainfall estimates at far ranges because the algorithm may interpret reflectivity from the bright band as an overestimate of precipitation reaching the surface. In solar-terrestrial terms, a bright gaseous stream surge emanating from the chromosphere.

In solar-terrestrial terms, a large gaseous stream surge that moves outward more than 0. A basic visual sensation describing the amount of light that appears to emanate from an object, or more precisely, the luminance of an object. A method of signaling in which multiple signals share the bandwidth of the transmission by the subdivision of the bandwidth into channels based on frequency.

An optical phenomenon sometimes occurring at high altitudes when the image of an observer placed between the sun and a cloud is projected on the cloud as a greatly magnified shadow. The shadows head is surrounded by rings of color, called a glory.

A mesoscale area of high pressure, typically associated with cooler air from the rainy downdraft area of a thunderstorm or a complex of thunderstorms. A gust front or outflow boundary separates a bubble high from the surrounding air.

In hydrologic terms, a water stage recording device that is capable of attaching to a LARC for data automation purposes. Generally, values in the range of around 50 to suggest environmental conditions favorable for supercell development. The tendency of a body to float or to rise when submerged in a fluid; the power of a fluid to exert an upward force on a body placed in it.

In solar-terrestrial terms, a transient enhancement of the solar radio emission, usually associated with an active region or flare. Slang for an inaccurate forecast, especially one where significant weather e.

Buttress dams are comprised of reinforced masonry or stonework built against concrete. They are usually in the form of flat decks or multiple arches. They require about 60 percent less concrete than gravity dams, but the increased form work and reinforcement steel required usually offset the savings in concrete. Many were built in the s when the ratio of labor cost to materials was comparatively low. However, this type of construction is not competitive with other types of dams when labor costs are high.

Dimensions have been reported to be generally between 10 and 20 cm, but sometimes even up to 1 m. It moves slowly in the air or on the ground and usually disappears with a violent explosion. Convective Available Potential Energy.

A measure of the amount of energy available for convection. CAPE is directly related to the maximum potential vertical speed within an updraft; thus, higher values indicate greater potential for severe weather. However, as with other indices or indicators, there are no threshold values above which severe weather becomes imminent.

CAPE is represented on an upper air sounding by the area enclosed between the environmental temperature profile and the path of a rising air parcel, over the layer within which the latter is warmer than the former. This area often is called positive area. In hydrologic terms, Cubic Feet per Second - the flow rate or discharge equal to one cubic foot of water, usually per second. This rate is equivalent to approximately 7.

This is also referred to as a second-foot. A measure of the amount of energy needed in order to initiate convection. Values of CIN typically reflect the strength of the cap.

They are obtained on a sounding by computing the area enclosed between the environmental temperature profile and the path of a rising air parcel, over the layer within which the latter is cooler than the former. This area sometimes is called negative area. Coronal Rain - In solar-terrestrial terms, material condensing in the corona and appearing to rain down into the chromosphere as observed at the solar limb above strong sunspots.

Cumulus clouds - Detached clouds, generally dense and with sharp outlines, showing vertical development in the form of domes, mounds, or towers. Tops normally are rounded while bases are more horizontal. See Cb, towering cumulus. In hydrologic terms, the process of using historical data to estimate parameters in a hydrologic forecast technique such as SACSMA, routings, and unit hydrographs.

A foehn wind that is channeled through a canyon as it descends the lee side of a mountain barrier. Air parcels rising into this layer become cooler than the surrounding air, which inhibits their ability to rise further and produce thunderstorms. As such, the cap often prevents or delays thunderstorm development even in the presence of extreme instability. However, if the cap is removed or weakened, then explosive thunderstorm development can occur. The cap is an important ingredient in most severe thunderstorm episodes, as it serves to separate warm, moist air below and cooler, drier air above.

Or, air above it can cool, which also increases potential instability. A stationary cloud directly above an isolated mountain peak, with cloud base below the elevation of the peak. In hydrologic terms, 1. The degree to which a material or object containing minute openings or passages, when immersed in a liquid, will draw the surface of the liquid above the hydrostatic level.

Unless otherwise defined, the liquid is generally assumed to be water. The phenomenon by which water is held in interstices above the normal hydrostatic level, due to attraction between water molecules. In hydrologic terms, the soil area just above the water table where water can rise up slightly through the cohesive force of capillary action.

This layer ranges in depth from a couple of inches, to a few feet, and it depends on the pore sizes of the materials. The capillary fringe is also called the capillary zone.

Waves caused by the initial wind stress on the water surface causes what are known as capillary waves. These have a wavelength of less than 1. Capillary waves are important in starting the process of energy transfer from the air to the water. Used interchangably with Capillary Fringe; the soil area just above the water table where water can rise up slightly through the cohesive force of capillary action. A region of negative buoyancy below an existing level of free convection LFC where energy must be supplied to the parcel to maintain its ascent.

This tends to inhibit the development of convection until some physical mechanism can lift a parcel to its LFC. The intensity of the cap is measured by its convective inhibition. The term capping inversion is sometimes used, but an inversion is not necessary for the conditions producing convective inhibition to exist. Alternate term for Cap; a layer of relatively warm air aloft, usually several thousand feet above the ground, which suppresses or delays the development of thunderstorms.

CO2; a colorless and odorless gas which is the fourth most abundant constituent of dry air. A Catalina Eddy coastal eddy forms when upper level large-scale flow off Point Conception interacts with the complex topography of the Southern California coastline. As a result, a counter clockwise circulating low pressure area forms with its center in the vicinity of Catalina Island.

This formation is accompanied by a southerly shift in coastal winds, a rapid increase in the depth of the marine layer, and a thickening of the coastal stratus. Predominately these eddies occur between April and September with a peak in June. A typical Catalina eddy will allow coastal low clouds and fog to persist into the afternoon. A strong Catalina eddy may extend to feet and these clouds will move through the inland valleys and reach as far as Palmdale.

In hydrologic terms, an area having a common outlet for its surface runoff also see Drainage Area or Basin, Watershed. A National Weather Service precipitation descriptor for a 80, 90, or percent chance of measurable precipitation 0.

See Precipitation Probability PoP. Alert stage or caution stage are used instead of caution stage in some parts of the country. CIG - The height of the cloud base for the lowest broken or overcast cloud layer. A device using a laser or other light source to determine the height of a cloud base. An optical ceilometer uses triangulation to determine the height of a spot of light projected onto the base of the cloud; a laser ceilometer determines the height by measuring the time required for a pulse of light to be scattered back from the cloud base.

A typical thunderstorm consists of several cells. The term "cell" also is used to describe the radar echo returned by an individual shower or thunderstorm. Such usage, although common, is technically incorrect.

The standard scale used to measure temperature in most areas outside the United States. Generally speaking, the vertical axis of a tropical cyclone, usually defined by the location of minimum wind or minimum pressure. The cyclone center position can vary with altitude. In advisory products, refers to the center position at the surface.

In solar-terrestrial terms, the passage of an Active Region or other feature across the longitude meridian that passes through the apparent center of the solar disk. The average flow in cubic feet per second for any time period is the volume of flow in cfs-days. A National Weather Service precipitation descriptor for 30, 40, or 50 percent chance of measurable precipitation 0.

When the precipitation is convective in nature, the term scattered is used. In hydrologic terms, also known as Watercourse; an open conduit either naturally or artificially created which periodically, or continuously contains moving water, or forms a connecting link between two bodies of water.

River, creek, run, branch, anabranch, and tributary are some of the terms used to describe natural channels. Natural channels may be single or braided.

Canal and floodway are some of the terms used to describe artificial channels. In hydrologic terms, water, which at any instant, is flowing into the channel system form surface flow, subsurface flow, base flow, and rainfall that has directly fallen onto the channel.

In hydrologic terms, an elongated opening in the ice cover caused by a water current. In hydrologic terms, the process of determining progressively timing and shape of the flood wave at successive points along a river. In mountainous areas or in cities with tall buildings, air may be channeled through constricted passages producing high winds. Santa Ana winds and winds through passes from the cold Alaskan interior to the sea are examples of these winds. Channeled high winds are local in nature but can be extremely strong.

These winds generally occur in well-defined areas. In hydrologic terms, the modification of a natural river channel; may include deepening, widening, or straightening. A computer model used in air pollution investigations that simulates chemical and photochemical reactions of the pollutants during their transport and diffusion. This is a region-specific term used for Foehn Winds in the lee of the Rocky Mountains in the United States; Foehn Winds are warm, dry winds that occur in the lee of high mountain ranges.

It is a fairly common wintertime phenomena in the mountainous west and in parts of Alaska. These winds develop in well-defined areas and can be quite strong. A foehn cloud formation appearing as a bank of altostratus clouds east of the Rocky Mountains, heralding the approach of a chinook. It forms in the rising portion of standing waves on the lee side of the mountains. An observer underneath or east of the cloud sees an arch of clear air between the clouds leading edge and the mountains below.

The cloud appears to converge with the mountains to the north and south due to a perspective effect. CFCs - Manufactured substances used as coolants and computer-chip cleaners. When these products break down they destroy stratospheric ozone, creating the Antarctic Ozone Hole in the Southern Hemisphere spring Northern Hemisphere autumn. While no longer in use, their long lifetime will lead to a very slow removal from the atmosphere.

In solar-terrestrial terms, the layer of the solar atmosphere above the photosphere and beneath the transition region and the corona. In solar-terrestrial terms, flares that are just Chromospheric Events without Centimetric Bursts or Ionospheric Effects.

SID Class C flare. The flow, or movement, of a fluid e. A cirriform cloud characterized by thin, white patches, each of which is composed of very small granules or ripples. These clouds are of high altitude 20,, ft or , m. A cloud of a class characterized by a composition of ice crystals and often by the production of halo phenomena and appearing as a whitish and usually somewhat fibrous veil, often covering the whole sky and sometimes so thin as to be hardly discernible.

CI High-level clouds 16, feet or higher , composed of ice crystals and appearing in the form of white, delicate filaments or white or mostly white patches or narrow bands. Cirrus clouds typically have a fibrous or hairlike appearance, and often are semi-transparent. Thunderstorm anvils are a form of cirrus cloud, but most cirrus clouds are not associated with thunderstorms. The time of morning at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon.

At this time, there is enough light for objects to be distiguishable and that outdoor activities can commence. The time at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon in the evening. At this time objects are distinguishable but there is no longer enough light to perform any outdoor activities. CEM - A message issued by the National Weather Service in coordination with Federal, state or local government to warn the general public of a non-weather related time-critical emergency which threatens life or property, e.

Geographic areas designated by the Clean Air Act where only a small amount or increment of air quality deterioration is permissible. CAT - In aviation, sudden severe turbulence occurring in cloudless regions that causes violent buffeting of aircraft.

A thin coating of ice on terrestrial objects, caused by rain that freezes on impact. The ice is relatively transparent, as opposed to rime ice, because of large drop size, rapid accretion of liquid water, or slow dissipation of latent heat of fusion.

With respect to severe thunderstorms, a local region of clearing skies or reduced cloud cover, indicating an intrusion of drier air; often seen as a bright area with higher cloud bases on the west or southwest side of a wall cloud. A clear slot is believed to be a visual indication of a rear flank downdraft. As used in connection with reimbursable National Weather Service NWS fire weather services, a public fire service or wildlands management agency, Federal or non-Federal, which requires and uses NWS fire and forestry meteorological services.

The composite or generally prevailing weather conditions of a region, throughout the year, averaged over a series of years.

A non-random change in climate that is measured over several decades or longer. The change may be due to natural or human-induced causes. It is issued by the fifteenth of the month. Mathematical model for quantitatively describing, simulating, and analyzing the interactions between the atmosphere and underlying surface e. A climate outlook issued by the CPC gives probabilities that conditions, averaged over a specified period, will be below-normal, normal, or above-normal.

The Center serves the public by assessing and forecasting the impacts of short-term climate variability, emphasizing enhanced risks of weather-related extreme events, for use in mitigating losses and maximizing economic gains. The system consisting of the atmosphere gases , hydrosphere water , lithosphere solid rocky part of the Earth , and biosphere living that determine the Earths climate.

An outlook based upon climatological statistics for a region, abbreviated as CL on seasonal outlook maps. CL indicates that the climate outlook has an equal chance of being above normal, normal, or below normal. The science that deals with the phenomena of climates or climatic conditions. An instrument that measures angles of inclination; used to measure cloud ceiling heights. A basin draining to some depression or pond within its area, from which water is lost only by evaporation or percolation.

A basin without a surface outlet for precipitation falling precipitation. Flooding that occurs on lakes with either no outlet or a relatively small one.

Seasonal increases in rainfall cause the lake level to rise faster than it can drain. The water may stay at flood stage for weeks, months, or years.

A low pressure area with a distinct center of cyclonic circulation which can be completely encircled by one or more isobars or height contour lines.

The term usually is used to distinguish a low pressure area aloft from a low-pressure trough. Closed lows aloft typically are partially or completely detached from the main westerly current, and thus move relatively slowly see Cutoff Low. CLD A visible aggregate of minute water droplets or ice particles in the atmosphere above the Earths surface. Same as Ceiling; the height of the cloud base for the lowest broken or overcast cloud layer.

Small particles in the air on which water vapor condenses and forms cloud droplets. An array of clouds whose bases are at approximately the same level. Rows of cumulus or cumulus-type clouds aligned parallel to the low-level flow. Cloud streets sometimes can be seen from the ground, but are seen best on satellite photographs. Radar echoes that interfere with observation of desired signals on the radar display. The process by which water droplets in a cloud collide and come together to form raindrops.

Flooding which occurs when water is driven onto land from an adjacent body of water. This generally occurs when there are significant storms, such as tropical and extratropical cyclones. Includes the area from a line approximating the mean high water along the mainland or island as far out as nautical miles including the bays, harbors and sounds.

The marine forecast for areas, including bays, harbors, and sounds, from a line approximating the mean high water mark average height of high water over a year period along the mainland or near shore islands extending out to as much as NM. Minor flooding is possible i. Flooding that will pose a serious threat to life and property is occurring, imminent or highly likely. Flooding with significant impacts is possible. This flooding may impact the immediate oceanfront, gulfs, bays, back bays, sounds, and tidal portions of river mouths and inland tidal waterways.

Lakeshore flooding impacts the immediate lakefront, bays, and the interfaces of lakes and connecting waterways, such as rivers. A radar that utilizes both signal phase and amplitude to determine target characteristics.

Downslope flow pulsations that occur at more or less regular intervals as cold air builds up on a peak or plateau, reaches a critical mass, and then cascades down the slopes. A shallow cold air mass which is carried up the slope of a mountain barrier, but with insufficient strength to surmount the barrier. The cold air, trapped upwind of the barrier alters the effective terrain configuration of the barrier to larger-scale approaching flows.

The phenomenon in which a low-level cold air mass is trapped topographically. Often, this cold air is entrenched on the east side of mountainous terrain. Cold Air Damming often implies that the trapped cold air mass is influencing the dynamics of the overlying air mass, e. Effects on the weather may include cold temperatures, freezing precipitation, and extensive cloud cover. A funnel cloud or rarely a small, relatively weak tornado that can develop from a small shower or thunderstorm when the air aloft is unusually cold hence the name.

They are much less violent than other types of tornadoes. A zone separating two air masses, of which the cooler, denser mass is advancing and replacing the warmer. A frontal zone formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front and, being colder than the air ahead of the warm front, slides under the warm front, lifting it aloft. Compare with warm occlusion.

A region of relatively cold air, represented on a weather map analysis as a relative minimum in temperature surrounded by closed isotherms. Cold pools aloft represent regions of relatively low stability, while surface-based cold pools are regions of relatively stable air. A generally circular ring of cloud that may be observed on rare occasions surrounding the upper part of a wall cloud.

This term sometimes is used incorrectly as a synonym for wall cloud. The fraction of droplets approaching a surface that actually deposit on that surface. A low pressure storm system that forms in winter in southeastern Colorado or northeastern New Mexico and tracks northeastward across the central plains of the U. In hydrologic terms, ice consisting of columnar shaped grain. The ordinary black ice is usually columnar-grained. Generally referred to as SEAS.

Used to describe the combination or interaction of wind waves and swells in which the separate components are not distinguished. This includes the case when swell is negligible or is not considered in describing sea state.

When used, SEAS should be considered as being the same as the significant wave height. A synoptic scale cloud pattern with a characteristic comma-like shape, often seen on satellite photographs associated with large and intense low-pressure systems. A thunderstorm radar echo which has a comma-like shape. It often appears during latter stages in the life cycle of a bow echo. Typically used to refer to mountainous terrain.

In general usage, it may also refer to coastal regions and heterogeneous landscapes. An average that is calculated according to specific criteria. For example, one might want a composite for the rainfall at a given location for all years where the temperature was much above average.

A stream discharge hydrograph which includes base flow, or one which corresponds to a net rain storm of duration longer than one unit period. In solar-terrestrial terms, the indicative of solar flare importance. These are common in the most intense hurricanes. They usually mark the end the period of intensification. These hurricanes then maintain quasi-constant intensity or weaken. When the inner eye is completely dissipated, more intensification may occur.

In general, the physical process by which a vapor becomes a liquid or solid; the opposite of evaporation, although on the molecular scale, both processes are always occurring. A funnel-shaped cloud associated with rotation and consisting of condensed water droplets as opposed to smoke, dust, debris, etc. An atmospheric condition that exists when the environmental lapse rate is less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate but greater than the moist adiabatic lapse rate.

Flow of heat in response to a temperature gradient within an object or between objects that are in physical contact. In hydrologic terms, the depression, roughly conical in shape, produced in a water table, or other piezometric surface, by the extraction of water from a well at a given rate. The volume of the cone will vary with the rate of withdrawal of water. Also called the Cone of Influence. Same as Cone of Depression; in hydrologic terms, the depression, roughly conical in shape, produced in a water table, or other piezometric surface, by the extraction of water from a well at a given rate.

In hydrologic terms, ground water held under an aquiclude or an aquifuge, called artesian if the pressure is positive. A pattern of wind flow in which air flows inward toward an axis oriented parallel to the general direction of flow. It is the opposite of difluence. Confluence is not the same as convergence. Winds often accelerate as they enter a confluent zone, resulting in speed divergence which offsets the apparent converging effect of the confluent flow.

The act that assigned the responsibility of river and floor forecasting for the benefit of the general welfare of the Nation's people and economy to the Weather Bureau, and subsequently the National Weather Service. With regards to wildfires, pattern of plume dispersion in a neutral atmosphere, in which the plume attains the form of a cone with its vertex at the top of the stack. Two points on the earths surface, at opposite ends of a geomagnetic field line.

In hydrologic terms, storage of water for later release for usual purposes such as municipal water supply, power, or irrigation in contrast with storage capacity used for flood control.

In hydrologic terms, ice cover formed by the packing and freezing together of floes, brash ice and other forms of floating ice. Alternate term for Isobaric Chart a weather map representing conditions on a surface of equal atmospheric pressure. For example, a mb chart will display conditions at the level of the atmosphere at which the atmospheric pressure is mb. In hydrologic terms, the volume of water in a reservoir. Unless otherwise indicated reservoir content is computed on the basis of a level pool and does not include bank storage.

A dry air mass originating over a large land area. Contrast with tropical air mass. The zone bordering a continent and extending to a depth, usually around FM, from which there is a steep descent toward greater depth. In solar-terrestrial terms, general term for solar noise lasting for hours and sometimes days.

In hydrologic terms, small monuments securely embedded in the surface of the dam. Any movement of the monument indicates a movement in the dam itself.

Movements in the dam are detected by comparing control points location to location of fixed monuments located off the dam using accurate survey techniques. Generally, transport of heat and moisture by the movement of a fluid. In meteorology, the term is used specifically to describe vertical transport of heat and moisture in the atmosphere, especially by updrafts and downdrafts in an unstable atmosphere. The terms "convection" and "thunderstorms" often are used interchangeably, although thunderstorms are only one form of convection.

However, convection is not always made visible by clouds. Convection which occurs without cloud formation is called dry convection, while the visible convection processes referred to above are forms of moist convection. The unstable boundary layer that forms at the surface and grows upward through the day as the ground is heated by the sun and convective currents transfer heat upwards into the atmosphere.

The vertically developed family of clouds are cumulus and cumulonimbus. The height of their bases range from as low as 1, feet to a bit more than 10, feet. Clouds with extensive vertical development are positive indications of unstable air. Strong upward currents in vertically developed clouds can carry high concentrations of supercooled water to high levels where temperatures are quite cold. Upper portions of these clouds may be composed of water and ice. CCL - The level in the atmosphere to which an air parcel, if heated from below, will rise dry adiabatically, without becoming colder than its environment just before the parcel becomes saturated.

CIN or B- - A numerical measure of the strength of "capping," typically used to assess thunderstorm potential. Specifically, it represents the cumulative effect of atmospheric layers the are warmer than the parcel moving vertically along the adiabat. Low level parcel ascent is often inhibited by such stable layers near the surface.

If natural processes fail to destabilize the lower levels, an input of energy from forced lift a front, an upper level shortwave, etc. Since CIN is proportional to the amount of kinetic energy that a parcel loses to buoyancy while it is colder than the surrounding environment, it contributes to the downward momentum.

The terms approaching, slight risk, moderate risk, and high risk are used to describe severe thunderstorm potential. Local versions sometimes are prepared by local NWS offices. Convection that covers the sky with clouds, thereby cutting off the sunshine that produces convection. The approximate temperature that the air near the ground must warm to in order for surface-based convection to develop, based on analysis of a sounding.

Calculation of the convective temperature involves many assumptions, such that thunderstorms sometimes develop well before or well after the convective temperature is reached or may not develop at all.

However, in some cases the convective temperature is a useful parameter for forecasting the onset of convection. A contraction of a vector field; the opposite of divergence. Convergence in a horizontal wind field indicates that more air is entering a given area than is leaving at that level.

To compensate for the resulting "excess," vertical motion may result: Upward forcing from low-level convergence increases the potential for thunderstorm development when other factors, such as instability, are favorable. In hydrologic terms, the loss of water from a conduit due to leakage, seepage, evaporation, or evapo-transpiration. CDD - A form of Degree Day used to estimate energy requirements for air conditioning or refrigeration. An individual or institution who takes precipitation and temperature observations-and in some cases other observations such as river stage, soil temperature, and evaporation-at or near their home, or place of business.

Many observers transmit their reports by touch-tone telephone to an NWS computer, and nearly all observers mail monthly reports to the National Climatic Data Center to be archived and published.

By international agreement, the local time at the prime meridian, which passes through Greenwich, England. It is also known a "Z time" or "Zulu Time". Core punching is not a recommended procedure for storm spotting. A fictitious force used to account for the apparent deflection of a body in motion with respect to the earth, as seen by an observer on the earth.

The deflection to the right in the Northern Hemisphere is caused by the rotation of the earth. A small-scale convergence effect that can be quite severe. It occurs around steep islands and headlands. In solar-terrestrial terms, a white or colored circle or set of concentric circles of light of small radius seen around a luminous body, especially around the sun or moon.

The color varies from blue inside to red outside and the phenomenon is attributed to diffraction of light by thin clouds or mist distinguished from halo. In solar-terrestrial terms, an extended region of the corona, exceptionally low in density and associated with unipolar photospheric regions. CRN In solar-terrestrial terms, material condensing in the corona and appearing to rain down into the chromosphere as observed at the solar limb above strong sunspots.

In solar-terrestrial terms, a general term for short-time-scale changes in the corona, but principally used to describe outward-moving plasma clouds. An output of the mesocyclone detection algorithm indicating a 3-dimensional shear region i.

The group of counties for which a National Weather Service Forecast Office is responsible for issuing warnings. The group of counties for which a National Weather Service Forecast Office is responsible for issuing warnings and weather forecasts.

Same as Coupled Model; in the context of climate modeling this usually refers to a numerical model which simulates both atmospheric and oceanic motions and temperatures and which takes into account the effects of each component on the other.

In the context of climate modeling this usually refers to a numerical model which simulates both atmospheric and oceanic motions and temperatures and which takes into account the effects of each component on the other. A small stream of water which serves as the natural drainage course for a drainage basin of nominal, or small size. The term is a relative one as to size, some creeks in the humid section would be called rivers if they occurred in the arid portion.

The alternating bands of light and dark rays and shadows seen at the earths surface when the sun shines through clouds. Highest point in a wave. In hydrologic terms, 1 The highest stage or level of a flood wave as it passes a point.

A gage used to obtain a record of flood crests at sites where recording gages are installed. In hydrologic terms, the thickness or width of a dam at the level of the crest top of the dam. The term "thickness" is used for gravity and arch dams and "width" for other types of dams. In hydrologic terms, The depth of water flowing in an open channel or conduit, partially filled, corresponding to one of the recognized critical velocities. In hydrologic terms, a condition of flow where the mean velocity is at one of the critical values; ordinarily at Belangers critical depth and velocity.

Another important usage is in reference to the Reynolds critical velocities which define the point at which the flow changes from streamline or nonturbulent to turbulent flow. CRP - In hydrologic terms, the Probability that the actual precipitation during a rainfall event has exceeded or will exceed the flash flood guidance value. In solar-terrestrial terms, a sudden deviation in the sunlit geomagnetic field H component; see geomagnetic elements associated with large solar flare X-ray emission.

In , Palmer developed the index to assess short-term crop water conditions and needs across major crop-producing regions. This index is a useful tool in forecasting short-term drought conditions. A thermally driven wind that blows during daytime across the axis of a valley toward the heated sidewall.

A fire where flames travel from tree to tree at the level of the trees crown or top. Movement of a fire from the understory into the crown of a forest canopy. The science of the physical aspects of snow, ice, hail, and sleet and other forms of water produced by temperatures below Zero degrees Celsius. CFP - In hydrologic terms, a unit expressing rates of discharge. One cubic foot per second is equal to the discharge through a rectangular cross section, 1 foot wide by 1 foot deep, flowing at an average velocity of 1 foot per second.

It is also approximately 7. Descriptive of all clouds with vertical development in the form of rising mounds, domes, or towers. A thunderstorm anvil with visual characteristics resembling cumulus-type clouds rather than the more typical fibrous appearance associated with cirrus.

A cumuliform anvil arises from rapid spreading of a thunderstorm updraft, and thus implies a very strong updraft. See anvil rollover, knuckles, mushroom. CU - detached clouds, generally dense and with sharp outlines, showing vertical development in the form of domes, mounds, or towers.

Clouds which develop vertically due to unstable air. Characterized by their cauliflower-like or tower-like appearance of moderately large size. A large, towering cumulus cloud with great vertical development, usually with a cauliflower-like appearance, but lacking the characteristic anvil of a cumulonimbus.

A horizontal movement of water. Currents may be classified as tidal and nontidal. Tidal currents are caused by gravitational interactions between the sun, moon, and earth and are a part of the same general movement of the sea that is manifested in the vertical rise and fall, called TIDE.

Tidal currents are periodic with a net velocity of zero over the tidal cycle. Nontidal currents include the permanent currents in the general circulatory systems of the sea as well as temporary currents arising from more pronounced meteorological variability.

In hydrologic terms, device used to measure the water velocity or current in a river. In hydrologic terms, a drain constructed at the upper end of the area to be drained, to intercept surface or ground water flowing toward the protected area from higher ground, and carry it away from the area. Also called an Intercepting Drain. An impervious construction or material which reduces seepage or prevents it. A closed upper-level low which has become completely displaced cut off from basic westerly current, and moves independently of that current.

Cutoff lows may remain nearly stationary for days, or on occasion may move westward opposite to the prevailing flow aloft i. However, not all closed lows are completely removed from the influence of the basic westerlies.

Therefore, the recommended usage of the terms is to reserve the use of "cutoff low" only to those closed lows which clearly are detached completely from the westerlies. A thunderstorm that undergoes cycles of intensification and weakening pulses while maintaining its individuality. Cyclic supercells are capable of producing multiple tornadoes i. CYC - A large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of low atmospheric pressure, counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.

Circulation or rotation which is in the same sense as the Earths rotation, i. Nearly all mesocyclones and strong or violent tornadoes exhibit cyclonic rotation, but some smaller vortices, such as gustnadoes, occasionally rotate anticyclonically clockwise. Compare with anticyclonic rotation. In solar-terrestrial terms, a daytime layer of the earth's ionosphere approximately 50 to 90 km in altitude. In hydrologic terms, it is the hydrologic Data Network Analysis Software.

Data Collection Platform In hydrologic terms, an electronic device that connects to a river or rainfall gage that records data from the gage and at pre-determined times transmits that data through a satellite to a remote computer.

As the name indicates, this climatological product is issued daily by each National Weather Service office. Most of the climatological data in this report are presented in a tabular form; however, some narrative statements may also be used in the product. The report is organized so that similar items are grouped together i. In hydrologic terms, the maximum mean daily discharge occuring in a stream during a given flood event.

Nelle parole dell'autore stesso, si sente che questo lavoro "è stato una vittoria" sulle vicissitudini che spingono molti gruppi a mollare. Ma Maurizio è determinato e caparbio nel raggiungere il suo obiettivo e le canzoni del dischetto dimostrano quanto sia dura ottenere dei buoni risultati. Spinto a fare tutto da solo dai continui abbandoni della sezione ritmica, si è chiuso in casa dando libero sfogo alle sue svariate influenze musicali che vanno dai Karma To Burn forse il gruppo più vicino alla scrittura del nostro e non solo per l'oggettivo dato strumentale ai Kyuss, da John Garcia la finale e ispirata "Zerotre" sembra attendere — impunemente — l'ugola del più grande interprete dello stoner rock al grunge di Seattle e a tutte quelle band che hanno mescolato sensibilità Settanta con hard dei Novanta.

Ma questi limiti tecnici non scalfiscono minimamente il risultato finale. Passaggio interessante risulta essere anche "Road to Aokigahara", che stacca per un momento il rifferama per buttarsi in una visione onirica e sospesa del deserto.

Non sbaglia qualcuno quando lo definisce il miglior lavoro nella produzione degli Om, non è una sparata o un'iperbole ma una constatazione. Ma come diceva qualcun altro, non è stata preso l'ultimo cialtrone disponibile, nemmeno una scimmia o un manichino da crash test. Dire che sia tutta opera di Al Cisneros sarebbe non solo sbagliato, ma anche ingiusto nei confronti dell'incredibile Emil Amos, uno dei batteristi più equilibrati e magnetici in circolazione, autore di una prova eccellente diretto più ad affascinare ed ipnotizzare che scuotere e colpire in volto.

E lo stesso Amos è artefice di questo parziale cambio di rotta, visto che l'esperienza dei Grails - soprattutto la loro ricerca di sonorità etnica e mediterranee, che profumano di sandalo e di incenso - si sente ed è anche evidente. Un altro elemento da non sottovalutare è la scelta di abbandonarsi all'uso di diversi strumenti, dal sitar al bouzuki, dal tambura alla scelta di inserire flauti e altri piccoli camei di gran classe.

L'altro tasselo fondamentale è la produzione, garantita al limone dal dottor Steve Albini: Tra migliaia di gruppi che suonano come i Pink Floyd nel senso di essere fac-similati e devoti ammanuensi del loro sound , trovarsi dinanzi ad uno che riesce a distanziarsi da loro con carattere ma facendoli immediatamente apparire con l'ascolto, non è roba da poco.

Il gruppo di Oakland, dopo aver abbandonato la Holy Mountain, firma per la Southern Lord Records e si ripresenta con un nuovo disco. Il primo shock è rappresentato dalla copertina, sulla quale campeggia una figura ispirata alla tipica iconografia cristiana! La storica sezione ritmica degli Sleep, Al Cisneros al basso e voce e Chris Hakius alla batteria, dopo "Variations on a theme" , "Conference of the birds" e gli split con Current 93 e Six Organs Of Admittance editi nel , propone per l'ennesima volta la formula stilistica che è divenuta un marchio inconfondibile: Alla produzione, il genio di Steve Albini.

I testi sono generati da riflessioni in merito a "processi della mente, realtà psichica, essenze astrali e causali, e la natura dell'anima" dalle note di presentazione della Southern. Il secondo brano "Unitive Knowledge of the Godhead" è più diretto, già a partire dalla durata meno di 6 minuti , rielaborando atmosfere simili a quanto espresso nei due precedenti studio album: Mi è bastato un ascolto per colmare questa grave lacuna e acquistare Geisterstadt.

Piccola descrizione della scena: I brani sono lunghi, articolati, arrangiati in modo complesso ma mai virtuosistico. Un universo perduto che accentua il forte contrasto tra Natura e Cultura, conflitto che anima anche le composizioni del disco. Si prosegue sul sentiero del precedente, bellissimo "Geisterstadt" - uno dei pochi album "post core" ad aver unito negli entusiasmi malati di sludge doom, Neurosis, psych e post rock.

Si ampliano gli orizzonti con una scrittura raffinata, poetica, ragionata, a tratti quasi drammatica. Formula strumentale non rivoluzionaria.

La tensione è sempre alta, i saliscendi emotivi colpiscono nel segno. I Pelican di "Australasia" - da inserire di diritto tra i capolavori mai ritrovati e ripetuti nel metal dei 'mila, giova ripeterlo ogni tanto - sono uno spettro sempre presente, comodo riferimento per coloro che si trovano costretti a descrivere lo stile di un lavoro. Un fantasma lasciato comunque alle spalle, perché "Karpatia" ha vita propria. Un cuore pulsante che inizia a battere forte nelle ritmiche monolitiche, paralizzanti, grasse dell'iniziale "Aura", i cui riff sono un toccasana in quanto a mix di pesantezza, intensità e groove.

Non c'è solo cuore, fatica e pancia. Il cervello si attiva dopo dieci minuti di sbornia: Il tutto senza mai risultare stancanti o stucchevoli, roba non da poco.

Le cadenze sabbathiane di "Im Karst" procedono con passi da mammut. Un carrarmato monolitico impressionante che nella title track rallenta e dilata ulteriormente i toni, producendo un ipnotismo ambient che tiene con il fiato sospeso.

Fino a sfociare in "Steinernes Meer", liquido saluto che entra nelle vene pian piano, come un batterio che spingerà finalmente il tasto off su dolori e brutture. L'instrumental downtempo ci salverà dal collasso. Con i loro intrecci strumentali gli Omega Massif mettono in musica scrosci di pioggia e sguardi nel vuoto. Omega Sun — Opium For the Masses. C'era un tempo in cui i Kyuss facevano proseliti e folgorati sulla strada per la Sky Valley, migliaia di gruppi emulavano quel suono magico.

Ce n'erano di buoni, comunque stroncati dalla stampa di settore Dozer e Lowrider su tutti , e ce ne erano di pessimi, subito dimenticati quando ci si rese conto che lo stoner rock non sarebbe mai potuto diventare fenomeno alla moda.

Gli Omega Sun da Koper, Slovenia, ci riportano a quegli anni. I ragazzi devono avere i santini di Kyuss e Unida in casa, persino la registrazione suona aspra e semplice come quella di Circus e Coyote. Fuori moda e fuori formato, gli Omega Sun ci consegnano 35 minuti abbondanti di riff pachidermici, wah-wah acidi e fuzz afosi, accompagnati da ritmiche quadrate e vocals che neanche più John Garcia.

Fotocopie di un genere appassito, d'accordo. Follow the smoke and burn away! Philadelphia è il luogo di provenienza di una nuova ed oscura entità chiamata Omegalord. Ci sono dischi destinati a restare impressi in modo indelebile nel libro personale di ciascuno di noi,un po come delle piccole pietre preziose che vanno custodite gelosamente in uno scrigno. Più lo si ascolta e più ci si rende conto di trovarsi davanti ad un vero piccolo capolavoro.

Sin dalle prime note della opening track, che da anche il titolo al disco, l'atmosfera che si respira è quella abrasiva ma allo stesso tempo melodica tipica del garage rock di stampo sixties… l'indimenticabile sound prodotto da band storiche e seminali quali 13th Floor Elevator, Flaming Groovies, Seeds Il disco prosegue su questa ottima strada, lanciato a forte velocità, lasciandosi dietro una scia di suoni graffianti e polverosi, fino al primo arresto… ma solo in senso metaforico… Con "Too Late", infatti, gli On Trial tirano fuori il loro lato più intimista, dimostrano di essere maestri anche in emozione, e ci deliziano con uno splendido episodo più soft, ma senza cadere nel banale e nel melenso Queste sono le vere "rock ballads" Una citazione particolare merita la bellissima "So Close", sicuramente uno dei momenti più commoventi del disco..

Il disco chiude in bellezza con tre pezzi in bilico tra psychedelia e space rock. Gran finale in tutti i sensi. Dopo averci regalato lavori meravigliosi come "Head entrance", "New day rising" e "Blinded by the sun", gli On Trial tornano da una momentanea pausa e lo fanno deliziandoci con "Forever".

Cambio di etichetta per la band danese, passata con la connazionale Bad Afro. Un trust che porta ottimi frutti dato che il nuovo lavoro è l'ennesima prova di grandezza dei cinque. Quaranta minuti di garage rock psichedelico colorato ed emozionante, nella migliore tradizione targata Love e 13th Floor Elevators. Ma attenzione, c'è qualcosa di diverso rispetto alle precedenti uscite che tanto ci hanno fatto innamorare di loro. Se prima erano melodie immediate e a presa rapida a caratterizzare il sound della band, ora prevale una maggiore cura in fase di songwriting.

Gli On Trial sono cresciuti ulteriormente, si concentrano sulla forma canzone, abbandonano anche le lunghe cavalcate psichedeliche per iniettare le loro dosi lisergiche in brani dalla breve durata.

Tutto concentrato in un pugno di canzoni dal sublime fascino, frutto di una composizione lenta e matura, meno immediata e più intensa. Lo si nota a partire dall'operner nonché singolo "Mountain", song che mette i brividi per quanto è 'vissuta' e ben suonata. È il lavoro delle chitarre di Bjarni e Henrik ad essere protagonista, ben sostenuto nelle ritmiche da Nik basso e Anders batteria.

Poi c'è la solita, bellissima voce di Bo a farci sognare mondi fantastici. Gli On Trial sono questi, dolci e soavi "Speaking of witch", "Black seagull" e "Blood river" rimarranno per sempre nei nostri cuori , psichedelici quanto basta "Every new direction" e "Morning sun in Burg Herzberg" ci proiettano in universi lontani , aggressivi quando è il momento giusto ascoltare i fuzz assassini di "Kill city lights" e "Believe" per credere.

Ma forse è la dimensione notturna di "Too late too loud" ad essere la vetta del disco, un gioiello che sembra scritto da Leonard Cohen sciolto nell'acido. Insomma, se nel mondo di oggi c'è sempre qualcosa da dimostrare, gli On Trial lo fanno con classe immensa e grande eleganza. Perché sono tra le poche band ad avere cucita addosso la stoffa dei fuoriclasse. E gli On Trial da questo punto di vista non sono certo i primi venuti: Questo album dal vivo contiene dodici tracce registrate nella suggestiva cornice di Christiania, comune di Copenhagen dove le parole amore, rispetto ed anarchia non sembrano ancora aver perduto senso.

Forse nessun altro contesto poteva far trovare a proprio agio gli On Trial. I brani presentati vivono una nuova, intensa interpretazione, splendendo per brillantezza e capacità esecutiva. La scaletta infatti è principalmente imperniata sulla produzione recente della band.

Vi alzate, scrollate la tendina e dato uno sguardo fuori. Siete indecisi come al solito se buttarvi nel traffico, farvi una corsetta tonificante o leggervi qualcosa. Non ditelo a nessuno, ma avete ascoltato un disco degli On Trial. La 12thRecords è senza dubbio un'etichetta valida e promettente in campo doom e heavy psych.

Nella sua scuderia trovano posto band di grande valore, tra le quali spicca il nome degli Operator Generator. Anche se il loro debutto risale ormai al , vale la pena recensire questo cd di tre pezzi perché le capacità del quartetto di San Josè sono ampie ed in prospettiva ricche di potenzialità.

Scorgendo il booklet tra l'altro la grafica è stata affidata alle meraviglie psichedeliche della Malleus , balza subito all'occhio la presenza in line up di Thomas Choi, chitarrista noto per la sua militanza in una band ormai storica del panorama stoner come i grandiosi Sleep.

Ed è proprio all'ex gruppo di Matt Pike che gli Operator Generator guardano con maggior devozione: L'inizio di "Arctic quest" è folgorante: Le vocals strazianti e dilatate di Mitchell French aggiungono il tocco finale, come evidente nella successiva "Infinite loop", sei minuti di godimento assoluto, divisi tra feedback stordenti, fumose atmosfere ipnotiche e ossessive ripetizioni che richiamano in pieno gli Sleep, anche per l'impostazione "stonata" data ai testi.

Dopo questa sbornia colossale, "Equinox planetarium" ci concede la mazzata finale grazie ad un concentrato di heavy space rock lisergico e tirato, degna conclusione di un quarto d'ora di pura follia sonica, che ha come suo unico difetto il fatto di trascorrere troppo in fretta… Sono ormai due anni che aspettiamo con impazienza un full lenght in piena regola, speriamo che questo sia l'anno giusto…sarà la volta buona?

Me lo auguro proprio… Alessandro Zoppo. Peccato che in due-tre brani manchi la stoccata vincente, per il resto gli Orange Goblin sono sempre una garanzia. Già da sola la benedizione e collaborazione di Steve Austin basterebbe per avere un parere positivo degli Orange Man Theory.

Gianni voce , Gabbo chitarra , Merendina batteria e Remo basso sono quattro pazzi. Suonano bene, compongono pezzi dal gran tiro ma fondamentalmente sono dei pazzi. Il che è un bene. Ma la confusione non è portatrice di male, anzi. È quella sfera magica attraverso la quale si raggiunge la Verità, la piena Verità. Il cuore di un suono sanguinario e coinvolgente. Questi sono gli Orange Man Theory, cui è lecito e doveroso aggiungere quel tocco personale, soprattutto nella costruzione armonica, che li rende distruttivi, noisy e al tempo stesso visionari.

Eterogeneità che viene fuori soprattutto in altri due episodi: Insieme a Last Minute To Jaffna e Laghetto quanto di meglio il panorama più folle ed estremo possa offrire al momento in Italia.

Quello che la stampa di settore ha definito "post hardcore" o "post metal" virgolette necessarie vive inesorabilmente una fase di flessione. Come quasi tutti i generi etichettati nati e fioriti attorno ad alcuni gruppi cardine in questo caso Tool, Neurosis, Isis, Pelican, Today Is The Day, Cult of Luna, per fare qualche nome , la riproposizione di stilemi e metodologie - di suono e composizione - si regge su equilibri abbastanza fragili.

Non sfuggono alle gabbie di queste classificazioni gli Orbe , giunti con il nuovo "Albedo" la seconda fase alchemica al traguardo del secondo disco dopo "Opera al Nero". Un concept album sul mito e le dinamiche che esso costruisce nella psiche e nella tradizione umana. E di registrarle bene, in totale autonomia la produzione è stata curata da Fabio Recupero e Alex Franzini. Le cinque tracce strumentali che compongono l'album sono ricche di riferimenti inevitabili, tuttavia hanno una loro carica espressiva che denota una certa maturazione.

Più compositiva che di stile. L'impatto e la furia espressiva dell'iniziale "Lilith" la prima donna sfociano nell'approccio ambient di "Xbalanque" gli eroi gemelli , dove emerge prepotente la perizia di Andrea e Juri alle chitarre l'alternarsi di riff e aperture ariose e soprattutto la capacità delle ritmiche Fabio al basso, Andrea alla batteria di costruire un tessuto intricato e jazzy davvero notevole.

Una solennità di passo che abbraccia anche la successiva "Amaterasu" il sole , progressione in slow motion dall'incedere drammatico che ha il solo difetto dell'autocompiacimento. Arricchendo ulteriormente il proprio bagaglio di influenze, gli Orbe possono ambire ad entrare in quella cerchia ristretta di band leggi Omega Massif, Kayo Dot, Across Tundras, Consciousness Removal Project, Russian Circles che hanno ancora qualcosa da dire nel sempre più asfittico panorama "post".

Da segnalare che il disco è stato pubblicato con licenza Creative Commons ed è scaricabile gratuitamente dal sito ufficiale del gruppo. Un motivo in più per apprezzare. Come riconoscere quindi il valore di un gruppo in questo sovraffollamento di post? Sempre rimanendo nei canoni ormai standard del genere in questo demo si sentono capacità di imbastardire gli standard stessi con idee melodiche e strutturali che suonano naturali ma fresche.

Nota negativa ormai di rito per quasi ogni autoproduzione italiana: Nella terra dove la professionalità si fa pagare caro ci si arrangia e il risultato sono produzioni casalinghe che pur suonando bene penalizzano non poco la band.

È ancora possibile oggigiorno fare una rilettura dei Black Sabbath senza cadere nello scontato? La risposta è si, se a farlo sono gli Orchid , quartetto di San Francisco in giro dal Dopo due anni dalla loro formazione hanno firmato il contratto discografico con la Church Within ma è soltanto nel che la band ha esordito con l'ep "Through the Devil's Doorway", gustoso antipasto di quello che ascoltiamo attualmente.

Si dicono essere fan di Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, Pentagram, ma è chiaro fin da subito che l'influenza primaria sia stata la leggendaria band di Birmingham. Ora è finalmente giunto il momento del full lenght dopo ben due anni di gestazione, questo affascinante "Capricorn". Ascoltando il brano d'apertura "Eyes Behind the Wall" non ci si rende nemmeno conto di essere nel O meglio, sembra di ascoltare la band di Iommi catapultata ai giorni nostri.

Come se il tempo si fosse fermato. La title track poi pare uscita dalle sessions di "Master of Reality". Molto intensa la voce di Theo Mindell che tra l'altro cura anche l'artwork dell'album: A proposito di riff, spettacolare quello di "Down Into the Earth" mentre "Cosmonaut of Three" si traveste della narcolessia sleepiana chiudendoci in un vortice sonoro che disorienta e seduce.

Ma la ciliegina sulla torta è rappresentata dalla sognante e tenebrosa "Albatross", posta in chiusura, praticamente una sorta di "Planet Caravan" riattualizzata e rivitalizzata per l'occasione.

E qui sono brividi che scorrono lungo la schiena. Un disco quindi consigliato ai nostalgici di queste sonorità, a chi è ancora in cerca di emozioni e a coloro che amano semplicemente il Rock, quello con la R maiuscola. Tutto il resto è superfluo.

Da Asschafenburg arrivano gli Orcus Chylde , band che conferma l'ottimo momento che sta vivendo la Germania in ambito retro rock. Basti pensare agli ormai celebrati Kadavar o ai meno noti ma altrettanto interessanti Heat. Gli Orcus Chylde propongono un sound piuttosto vario, di non semplicissima lettura, che passa dal doom dal sapore antico di matrice sabbatthiana al rock più attuale ed occulto affine a band quali Uncle Acid and The Deadbeats. Il tutto è elaborato passando attraverso lidi psichedelici e ricerche sonore che si ricollegano alla gloriosa tradizione prog, accennando persino a toni gothic rock e ad inevitabili sapori heavy blues.

Ancora a voler riconfermare quanto i Led Zeppelin abbiano svolto un'infinita influenza sui gruppi più disparati e differenti. L'album è composto da 8 tracce per una durata complessiva di 48 minuti. Gli Orcus Chylde si muovono nei meandri della belle epoque svedese Norskken, Witchcraft, Graveyard, Abramis Brama , specie nell'approccio bluesy e Settantiano.

La loro proposta è prog psych e dark doom dalle cadenze blues. Le atmosfere oscure ed ancestrali rendono il risultato ancora più avvincente. Se vi sono piaciuti gli Horisont e "Legend" dei Witchcraft vi ha fatto storcere il naso, ecco il disco che aspettavate.

Nel , tra i lavori di maggiore interesse nel genere al pari dell'esordio dei Royal Thunder, con cui — non a caso — gli Orcus Chylde condividono l'appeal occult prog. Anche se con leggero ritardo ci giunge ora il secondo demo dei pugliesi Orient Express, band in giro dal e molto presente in varie manifestazioni a livello nazionale come l'I-Tim Tour.

Questo demo è in realtà un ep di quattro pezzi più una traccia video che è proprio la performance dei tre alla tappa milanese del festival itinerante organizzato da RockTv. Un buon trampolino di lancio dunque, favorito dalla qualità dei quattro brani presenti sul dischetto. La passione per il rock degli anni '70 risulta evidente dall'ascolto, ma Vito basso e voce , Paolo batteria e Gigi chitarra non si pongono alcun limite. Piuttosto sono alcuni vizi di forma la registrazione da migliorare per far uscir fuori il loro reale talento a comprometterne la perfetta riuscita.

In ogni caso si tratta di un prodotto di pregevole fattura, molto promettente per una band motivata e compatta. Gli Orient Express sono infatti capaci di emozionare e scuotere. Mentre la traccia video, "Faith", è una ballata notturna dai tratti cupi e romantici che non disdegna toni jazzati e inflessioni improvvisate che lasciano spazio al fluire libero delle note. Buona band gli Orient Express, li aspettiamo fiduciosi al prossimo lavoro.

Siamo sicuri che non ci deluderanno. Esordio che ci consegna una band brava dal punto di visto tecnico compositivo, ancora acerba sul piano della personalità.

Perché Vito basso, voce , GG chitarre , Pabro batteria e Blondy synth puntano forte sulla fusione di stili: Il gruppo pugliese ci propone questo ep composto da tre brani ed un video. Ottima e convincente è anche la versione acustica del brano, sognante ed eterea. L'albero del Bene e del Male. In molti hanno speso le loro peregrinazioni intellettuali attorno a questo concetto.

E non troppo distante è il bellissimo film di Terrence Malick che si interrogava sull'esistenza di un moto vitale tra le generazioni di una famiglia nella stessa maniera in cui le radici nutrono le foglie, sane o malate che siano. Ed è proprio con una voce fuori campo di stampo cinematografico che inizia il secondo disco degli Orne , gruppo nato dalle ceneri dei Reverend Bizarre, e andato ben oltre qualunque più rosea aspettativa.

Gli elementi di ossessività e distorta lentezza del bizzarro reverendo hanno ceduto il passo ad un tocco magico ed elegante, sospeso tra strumenti acustici come sassofono, flauto ed organo e il ritmo ossianico dei riff di chitarra. Le canzoni hanno il compito di descrivere un universo finito e a sé stante, degno di reggersi da solo ma in continua contaminazione con il concept del disco. Oltre sette minuti ognuna, si snodano attraverso un intro dolce e delicato per deflagrare nel corpo centrale del pezzo e lasciare una scia lucente nel finale.

Si ascoltano leggeri ricami di piano Rhodes in cui s'innestano solos di chitarra gentili e mai sopra le righe. La parte ritmica segue le trame e sostiene il tutto con una leggera prevalenza di carattere della batteria. E sulle stesse coordinate si apre il pezzo più accessibile del disco, "Beloved Dead", che, a dispetto del titolo, sprizza chiara essenza pinkfloidiana con l'aiuto della sola voce e della chitarra acustica. Il finale è tanto inaspettato, quanto straordinario.

La sorpresa risiede nel ritmo sincopato e flower power di "I Was Made Upon Waters", omaggio fin troppo esplicito alla stagione delle grandi band progressive, soprattutto italiane.

Tutto finisce come era iniziato, con la voce salmodiante che si fa appendice della conclusiva "Sephira", unica composizione a donare una distorsione di stampo stoner all'intero disco. Leggermente al di sotto dello splendido album d'esordio, "The Tree of Life" si farà ricordare nel tempo per le sue qualità di scrittura ed arrangiamento che andranno oltre il tempo, lo spazio e la nostra stessa vita; d'altra parte Amor Vincit Omnia e questo ci basta per farcene una ragione.

Di recente il mondo del doom è sempre più popolato da nuove entità oscure e misteriose che riportano in auge un sound che molti ritengono datato e privo di reali sbocchi innovativi.

Tra i tanti gruppi ad emergere da tale sottobosco cupo spiccano gli Orodruin con un nome preso in prestito dal "Signore degli anelli"… , band proveniente da Rochester, New York, e giunta al debutto sotto l'egida della sempre più attiva PsycheDOOMelic Records.

Va subito detto che il dischetto in questione è un po' difficile da digerire tutto d'un fiato, la complessità delle trame ritmiche ed armoniche dei quattro corre spesso il rischio di annoiare, ma ascolto dopo ascolto vengono fuori spunti apprezzabili e degni di nota.

Sono soprattutto gli inserti di tastiere a convincere basta ascoltare l'organo lugubre dell'iniziale "The welcoming" e l'intermezzo atmosferico della conclusiva title track , donano infatti un tocco gotico a composizioni che si abbeverano alla fonte del doom, riprendendo l'influenza di nomi classici come Saint Vitus, Solitude Aeternus, Cathedral e Candlemass.

Chitarre granitiche e compatte, vocals malinconiche ma pur sempre melodiche ed intelligenti intuizioni in fase di songwriting la paralizzante liquidità di "Peasants lament" o l'andamento epico e commovente di "War cry" sono gli ingredienti di una ricetta plumbea e depressiva, perfetta colonna sonora di un incessante giorno di pioggia.

Tracce come "Melancholia" e la splendida "Unspeakable truth", tutta giocata sull'alternanza di riff soffocanti, saliscendi vocali e intrecci percussivi, dimostrano l'abilità di una band validissima, ancora acerba ma già proiettata verso un futuro intrigante e pieno di rosee prospettive. Questo nuovo album degli Orquesta del Desierto è di gran lunga migliore rispetto al precedente. Suono più raffinato, e composizioni molto più mature. Se vi è piaciuto l'esordio non esitate a fare vostro questo secondo capolavoro.

Detto questo, la recensione parrebbe chiusa, ma entrando nel merito di "Dos" ci accorgiamo canzone dopo canzone delle qualità che riesce ad esprimere. Certo, questo disco non è per tutti. Esce un po' fuori dai canoni tipici dello stoner rock. Essenzialmente sono presenti una vasta gamma di strumenti acustici e anche le sonorità si rifanno ad un folk rock con tratti di ritmiche latine ed elementi di psichedelia californiana.

Cinque dei brani presenti in quest'album erano stati recensiti alcuni mesi fa nel promo che ci era stato inviato. Uno di questi era proprio l'opener che già dalle prime note mostra una completezza di suoni di gran lunga superiore. La voce di Pete Stahl ricamata su un tappeto ritmico fatto anche di percussioni è assolutamente deliziosa. Atmosfere rilassate e avvolgenti, chitarre acustiche, piano e trombe per due perle di rara bellezza.

L'evidente maestria dei musicisti che vi suonano cola ad agni nota. L'anima rock non viene mai dimenticata, sebbene le influenze siano infinite.

Le note di questo brano sono come la bianca sabbia del Joshua Tree californiano, la slide guitar come 'Santana", il caldo vento del sud California. Questo disco è in assoluto una delle cose più belle che abbia sentito quest'anno. Il Rancho de la Luna è già diventato un simbolo della scena desertica. La "desert scene" ha sicuramente il grosso pregio di raccogliere un concentrato di artisti di indubbie qualità tecniche che spesso in maniera del tutto amichevole e trasversale crea i presupposti per la nascita di progetti artistici di rilievo.

Una comunità musicale che ci sta regalando un'alchimia di suoni e stili sempre distinguibili in continua evoluzione e votata alla sperimentazione. Gli Orquesta del Desierto non sono gli ultimi arrivati in questo importante fiume linfatico che sta attraversando il genere rock. Già autori di un ottimo debutto nel si accingono a riproporsi nei prossimi mesi autunnali con un sequel che si preannuncia di pregevole fattura. Impegnati negli scorsi mesi, nella fase di registrazione nei pressi del mitico Rancho De La Luna, sito all'interno del Parco Nazionale di Joshua Tree in California, sotto la super visione di Steve Dandy Brown, nelle veci di produttore e strumentista, attualmente gli Orquesta del Desierto stanno ultimando la fase di mixaggio del nuovo album ancora senza titolo.

A completare la formazione Country Mark Engel alla chitarra, l'ennesima per un sound acustico veramente avvolgente , Bill Barrett alla tromba e Tim Jones al piano. Cinque i brani ricevuti in anteprima con l'opener "Summer" che ha tutte le carte in regola per essere un potenziale singolo dalle melodie dolci e coretti sospesi con un finale in forte crescendo acido. Il quarto brano "Someday" è forse quello che ha suscitato più dubbi.


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